Code Review For Teams – Now With Full Transcript

Mo Jangda from Automattic gave a presentation and lead a discussion on Code Review at a recent WordPress Big Media Meetup in New York City now with full transcript. 

So to get a sense of what the room looks like, how many people here are developers? So the majority of people, probably 70-80 per cent. How many people are editorial? A few people, that’s good. How many people are management? You guys in the suits.

If you’re a developer, how many people have a code review process built into their teams right now? Not everyone, which is disappointing. So that’s what I’m here to talk about.

The goal should be to have at least one other person than the person who wrote the code look it over and to review it for things like quality standards, security concerns and performance and so on, things like that.

You can’t code review if you’re doing it live. So, ultimately the goal with code review is basically to improve the quality of your code.

So if you’re editorial, right, the idea is that you’re not going to push something out any sort of published articles without going through the copy editing phase, unless you care about money, in which case you don’t care.

You want to make sure the stuff you’re putting out is good quality, and that’s where code review is – that’s why it’s sort of nice to do.

The goal should be to have at least one other person than the person who wrote the code look it over and to review it for things like quality standards, security concerns and performance and so on, things like that.

So it doesn’t necessarily have to be a junior to senior. It’s a learning opportunity for both, different skill sets as well.

And the secondary goal is you sort of becomes that you’re learning from each other as developers. It doesn’t necessarily have to be a junior developer passing off their work to a senior developer and them telling them basically everything they did wrong.

It can actually go the other way where a senior developer passes off their work to a junior developer and says here’s the code I’ve written,can you look it over and see what I’m doing?

It gives the junior developer an opportunity to look at how the code is being written by the senior developer and learn from them, right?

So it doesn’t necessarily have to be a junior to senior. It’s a learning opportunity for both, different skill sets as well.

The other thing to sort of keep in mind is that code reviews shouldn’t be something else that you tack on. It’s part of the development process, right?

So it’s not something that you should consider a tedious thing that should be going on, it’s something that you should have built into your processes as part of your deployment, as part of your coding, so something you do on a regular basis.

There’s different ways you can do code review obviously. You can have a gatekeeper-type approach. Where you have one person who’s sort of like master of the code review, so every bit of code that gets written goes through that person.

So that person can be a senior person, can be a rotator role so all code goes to that person, they review it, send feedback and iterate on the code that way.

One flow, or one specific approach to code review is not going to work for everyone. So you’ve got to find something that works for you.

You can do some things like peer review, where you have teams of developers put together, so one person is buddied up with another so any time a person needs feedback, anytime a person is finished working on a patch or working on a new feature they can pass it off to their fellow developer and say, hey can you give me feedback.

You can have a committee-based approach, where you have multiple people giving feedback on patches. If you’re using something like Git or GitHub you can use pull requests. GitHub makes it really easy to comment on code, and pull requests and commenting and so on.

You can also do pair programming, which I personally dislike, but it works for a lot of people if you’re into extreme programming or agile processes and stuff like that. You can have people working on code at the same time and the cool feature of that is that you’re essentially doing code review live because you’re questioning each other as you’re writing code.

One person types up something, the other person sort of questions: Okay, why did you write that?

There’s different points in time where you can actually use code review so you can actually start doing code review before writing a single piece of code and you’re essentially talking out the concepts with each other.

You know, we planned out the specs and functionality, we’ve thought about what my classes are going to look like, what my functions are going to look like.

So it’s a good opportunity to actually talk with you, what approach you’re taking to code review, to talk with the person with whom you’re doing the code review to see you know, does this make sense?

Obviously you do things like pre-commit reviews, look at patches, so before you even commit the code send the patch over, send over and review it that way.

It’s a great way for your team to actually write better code and build a more cohesive unit.

We also do post-commits, so once the changes are done, committed, you can review the pull request or the actual committed code.

You can also do post-deploy, so if you don’t actually have time, to do a full code review before pushing it out, you can still go back and do code review on stuff that’s pushed live and make changes over time.

The most important thing obviously is you got to find a flow that sort of works for your team.

So one flow, or one specific approach to code review is not going to work for everyone. So you’ve got to find something that works for you.

Doesn’t necessarily have to be anything very specific. It can be sort of totally casual, like a conversation between two developers.

So it’s pretty important to find something that works for you. You also don’t need fancy tools, you don’t necessarily need to go out and get your own license of Phabricator, which is a code review tool that Facebook has built up.

To be honest, it can just be as simple as two developers passing around a patch to each other. Looking it over.

So it doesn’t have to be complex, but if you want it to be complex, you can.

But you can keep it simple, find something that works for you and so on. When it actually comes to doing the code review, there’s a few things to keep in mind.

Throw your ego out the door.

The most important thing, and this goes for both the person reviewing the code and the person receiving feedback is throw your ego out the door.

There’s no such thing as ego and emotion during code review. That’s the most important thing to keep in mind.

The reviewer is not smarter or dumber than the person whose code they’re reviewing. In the same sense, the person whose code is being reviewed they’re at the same level. So ego is not involved, it’s not supposed to be personal. It’s supposed to basically be about questioning the code, right?

Not questioning the person. So one thing that I usually try to keep in mind while I’m personally reviewing code is that I usually recommend to people is that when you’re phrasing your feedback never include the word “you” .

So it’s not YOUR code, it’s THE code. Right? So that takes away the personal aspect of it and it makes the reviewer feel less attacked.

Because getting your code reviewed can be a very scary thing, but it shouldn’t be.

You should get to a point, where you should actually be proud to have your code reviewed and proud of the code you’re presenting to your teammate, senior developer or boss and so on.

To show that this is the amazing thing that I’ve done, and you know what, I expect there to be flaws.

Chances are, there might not be, but you know, if there are issues with it, it’s something you know, the mistakes that you find, is something that I can learn from.

The other thing to sort of keep in mind, is that you as a reviewer want to be critical about things, right? So question the decision that the developer is making.

Why did they name that variable that way? Is that a valid variable name, right? Why is this function name so long? Can this be abstracted? Right? So design decisions like that can be a good way to root out potential problems in the code.

But obviously, you don’t want to get too caught up in the minor details, so getting caught up on spaces over tabs which we’ve had problems in the past with before, in VIP, where some developers would reject code commits for using space instead of tabs, you know that’s a minor implementation don’t get too caught up on that.

Point it out, but it’s not going to be a blocker. But it’s important that coding standards and best practices are still followed, so it’s important that your team is following those that in your reviews, you’re actually flagging those and so on.

The other thing to keep in mind is as a reviewer, don’t worry about catching everything. ‘Cause you’re not. I don’t mean to brag, but I think I’ve reviewed about 20,000 commits on VIP. Of the many commits that I’ve reviewed on VIP there’s been stuff that I’ve missed and that’s naturally going to happen.

Because manual code review is not going to be perfect. Automated code review is not going to be perfect.

There’s no such thing as ego and emotion during code review. That’s the most important thing to keep in mind.

Things will get missed, things will go live that will break your site. But that’s, an opportunity to learn from so the next time you review your code you’re going to be extra conscious about it and try to find that mistake that you made and try and prevent it from happening again.

So that’s the other thing as a reviewee, you should sort of keep in mind. When a mistake is found, and pointed out to you, you should try and avoid making that mistake again. It’s a very important thing. You should be using it as a learning opportunity, right?

If you are making the same mistake over and over again. Chances are there’s something wrong. Either with your processes or with how you’re developing. That’s something you should work to change.

Never focus on the negatives.

As a reviewer, if you find the same problems over and over again, that’s when you need to question what’s going on with this developer? Why are they not sort of picking up the problems that I’m seeing? Another thing I sort of do, and I mentioned this earlier with not making it personal, try to keep in mind try to stick to the positives, right?

Never focus on the negatives. What’s a good example? It’s important to start a phrase with: How can we do this better? Instead of this is dumb, this is stupid.

So again, avoiding the personal attacks, trying avoid getting too emotional about things and staying focused on this code could be optimized more instead of this code will break your site, things like that.

I think that just about covers it. That’s sort of one of the biggest things I wanted to go over. But also, I guess it’s ultimately important to find something that works for you.

Code review is, it’s something that’s near and dear to my heart because I’ve been doing it for the past three years as a reviewer, it’s the best way to learn best practices and learn new code.

I’ve actually learned more new WordPress functions by looking at other people’s code than I have through just following news and following WordPress codex and things like that.

So it’s a great opportunity for reviewers to sort of look at how other people code or how other people think when they’re approaching problems.

And as a reviewee, it’s a humbling experience and a great opportunity to learn. And ultimately, it’s a great way for your team to actually write better code and build a more cohesive unit to ultimately do cool stuff.

Thank you.

Q: It’s easy to think that if you don’t review everything, then you should just give up because if you’re not reviewing everything, then the problem is going to be in the spot you didn’t review.

So, I think that maybe some of the thought process behind not everyone here doing code reviews I think it’s something that I think everyone wants to do so I was wondering if you could provide tips is there any sort of lightweight code review process? Is there anything that doesn’t require every commit to be reviewed by somebody else?

A: So that’s where I would look at post-deploy commits or post-deploy reviews so reviews don’t necessarily have to block things from going out but you still take the opportunity to go back at some point.

Let’s say you have a work week, you set aside two hours in the week Friday or something where you as a team, get together and review each other’s code, and look at various commits and stuff.

So to give you an example, on WordPress.com, the platform, we have about a 120 or so developers. I may be fudging our numbers. We have a lot of developers pushing out code daily. We probably have anywhere from 60 to 100 to 200 commits going out every single day and we haven’t really actually found a good mix, or good flow for us what makes sense for a code review.

So we end up relying on post-deploy code reviews where the idea is certain developers will take some time on the side, a couple hours a day, a couple of hours a week to sort of look, skim through commits that people have done.

They’ll just look through the log to see a commit message or if there’s a particular feature they’re interested in or that they’ve worked on in the past to sort of give it a quick skim and see if there’s something that they can flag for the developer to work on.

So it doesn’t necessarily have to be a very time intensive or blocking process. Ideally, you want to get to a point where it does become integrated into your development flow but it doesn’t necessarily have to.

To be honest, spending even an hour a week is a perfect starting point.

Q: Is there a good size team for doing code review? Like if you have fewer people,are there better methods? Like for smaller teams, to do it so it’s not interfering, so it’s not just like back and forth constantly?

A: Again depends on your type of workflow and your team dynamic.

In that case, it’s like if you’re using like Git for example it’s a simple pull request is probably a great way to go.

If you’re working on a feature, send a pull request and have the guy sitting beside you say can you take a quick scan. Or if there are specific things that you are worried about, have them look it over and point out specific things.

Like I’m not really sure about this particular function, I’m not sure about how this class interacts with this feature, can you just take a look at it.

So it doesn’t necessarily have to be you’re reviewing the whole commit, just skimming through something and seeing if anything jumps out.

Participant: I have a small addition. So one thing that I find really helps out if you have a definition of the process so for example if you have code review documentation, like what kind of code structure you need to keep, templates defaults you need to use also speeds up a lot of reviews because you can automatically assume the person is following the structure, because they technically know about it.

The easy way to speed it up is to also just I mean ignore JavaScript and CSS, because if you have a lot you can just ignore CSS. If your quality assurance team passes it and it looks fine, also JavaScript if you really don’t have time.

A: I mean for CSS especially, as a code reviewer when I look at the VIP code, I basically ignore CSS, because from my perspective, I care more about the security and performance.

So you’re right, there are things you can sort of ignore, if you are a designer and like reviewing CSS, then go for it. But also, like you said, standards are really important, and processes are really important.

Especially, as you grow as a team, again doesn’t necessarily have to be super formal and super strict, but it helps to have some sort of definition in place so you can follow, your team knows what to do.

So they’re actually trying to have their code reviewed, instead of pushing it live.

Steph: Out of curiosity, how many people here have had Mo review their code?

Participant: He’s the best!

How many of you have had code rejected by me?

Participant: How many people want to beat Mo up after this meetup?

Participant:I’m in

Participant: Actually out code was reverted 2 min before the meetup.

What I usually tell people at like VIP workshops and stuff is that your ultimate goal should be to make me so happy that I would never want to revert that code ever.

We actually revert code once a day. The interesting thing is that if you have some sort of code review process, we actually notice when VIP’s adopt some sort of code review process, internally, so they have someone on their team review their code before it comes to us.

The quality, there’s a significant increase. The number of issues we have to flag, the number of reverts that actually end up happening to that code goes significantly down.

It’s a testament that code review can actually work and keep us happy and keep your code getting deployed much faster.

If you’re not on VIP, still a great opportunity to make sure your team is working together, make sure your team is writing good code. ‘Cause the last thing you want is to push out a security hole and all of a sudden has your homepage hacked the Syrian army or whatever.

See the presentations from previous Big Media & Enterprise WordPress Meetups. For Big Media & Enterprise WordPress Meetup groups in other cities, see the full list on VIP Events and join your local group. 

Want more information about WordPress services for media or enterprise sites? Get in touch.

USA Today’s World Cup – Now With Full Transcript

Ephraim Gregor from USA Today presented “World Cup and WordPress.com VIP”  at a recent Big Media & Enterprise Meetup in New York City, now with full transcript. 

Hi everyone, I’m Ephraim and I’m from USA Today Sports media group. USA Today Sports Media Group is basically a subgroup within the USA Today proper, and we formed about two, two and a half years ago with the purpose of essentially improving and consolidating USA Today’s fairly extensive sports offerings.

Now, when we first started that when we first started that, basically we looked at all our current acquisitions, as we acquired a lot of little many one off, that we thought would be a good acquisition.

It had some interesting moments and so we essentially looked to WordPress for both unified code,easy to use editorial tools a good plugin architecture.

We first of all looked at the code base which was basically pretty much everything under the sun and more and decided that we needed to consolidate, improve and move to one code base. It had some interesting moments and so we essentially looked to WordPress for both unified code, easy to use editorial tools a good plugin architecture and after developing some independent WordPress, we then moved to VIP.

VIP basically allows us to spin up very rapidly and develop across one central theme which we call Lawrence and develop many many small sort of look and feels that we develop and integrate and display modular systems within the WordPress.

We first of all looked at the code base which was basically pretty much everything under the sun and more and decided that we needed to consolidate, improve and move to one code base.

As it says, we have 3-6 styles and we’re adding more every single project with additional integrations as we go on. Sports, specifically, as a data-driven architecture is essentially, interesting because not-only do we have the sort of standard article content-driven approach, we also have to deal with fact that we are trying to deliver, ideally, real-time data about every single sporting event we’re going to report.

In general, right now, our platforms tend to be divided into specific sub categories so we have to have one platform that can deliver soccer, one platform that delivers baseball, one platform that delivers fighting stuff.

So that’s certainly a challenge. So what we’ve done is essentially built off a central theme with multiple plugins to then allow us to turn on and off various sorts of external systems that can deliver this data into the WordPress flow and then deliver that to our users.

So recently I was the lead dev on the World Cup offering we have put up for obviously a sporting event that’s happening right now. What that was, was interesting for several reasons.

First of all, we had to integrate both vendor and internal data to display that with the latest scores, articles, stuff like that. We also had to basically develop a system in place to allow us to display that to the users while maintaining editorial control over that.

A lot of the data was driven by third-party vendor based out of the UK. We also had the problem of essentially turning this into one of our first hub sites. By which I mean, we have a lot of content spread throughout our network. and we wanted to basically flow that content into our own, into World Cup, while also maintaining the fact that these are external links to their own sites and maintaining that sort of multiple umbrella we have.

So what we ended up doing is leveraging both VIP’s offerings and our own, to extend to plugins and syndication things, to build that out into an experience for users that would allow essentially the mobile WordPress flow of content generated by authors directly syndicated to the user, into content distributed across all of our sites both WordPress and non-WordPress and display to the user within the whole post flow, while allowing the user to go to that and go to an external site.

It was interesting. Other things we implemented was also basically increased sort of data migration we had because we basically had the challenge of both integrating the vendor, as mentioned as well as our own data, which we get from various vendors, editorial-driven, code, all bits and bobs.

Generally, the general architecture approach we take for data is to have it stored in external databases and have that be their own CMS that we manage internally as opposed to trying to put that within the WordPress architecture.

We also are starting to move slowly onto other divisions within USA Today, and are seeing a good thing and wanting to get a slice of that pie.

While there is some content that definitely fits, like the custom post types, taxonomies and stuff like that, generally for sports data that’s somewhat unwieldy. So we generally prefer to spin up our own either Mongo or MySQL based solutions.

So our goals going forward is to basically continue operating and migrating our solutions onto the WordPress VIP platform I don’t know the exact count of sites we have right now. I think it’s either between 15 and 20 with more spinning up every week.

We also are starting to move slowly onto other divisions within USA Today, and are seeing a good thing and wanting to get a slice of that pie.

So we are moving Life, Entertainment, that sort of thing as well. Obviously none of this affects, like if you go to USAToday.com. As a whole, that is not WordPress, that might be something in the future. But right now it is a separate platform, but there’s a lot of little subsections that are very much looking and keen on the WordPress as a platform.

We’re also continuing to improve Lawrence as keeping that as a core modular theme, which we’re iterating off and adding new sort of API integrations for our own content and data driven by others, and we’re pretty sure that we can develop pretty much anything within this platform.

So I’m out of time but I will take questions now.

Q: Brad from Alley Interactive, what’s Lawrence named after?

A: Lawrence is named after, it was developed by a bunch of guys in the LA office originally, and apparently there was a vendor who just randomly runs into the building and offered sandwiches and his name was Lawrence. I don’t know what to make of that, as a member of the New York office, but it is what it is, any other questions?

Q: How do you interact this USA Today sports group with the other properties?

A: Reasonably siloed. We obviously have some dealings with the other offerings as well as the USA Today central group, but as I said, most of the sports stuff is a little bit outside of that field. Certainly our biggest integration is moving basically flowing content across both all WordPress sports media group offerings into the other systems and vice-versa, so that’s our biggest integration and we’re looking for like similar sort of promotional stuff like syndication, stuff like that as well.

Is there any other questions?

Q: Rohit from Forbes, so obviously you’re using WordPress on the backend, so first question is WordPress also feeding the front-end of the sports system?

A: Yes.

Q: And then you mentioned other divisions within USA Today are also looking to make the move over…The main USA Today website using php or something?

A: The main USA Today website is actually a system not too dissimilar from yours actually. I believe that we have a proprietary CMSin it, I believe an ASP, that drives a front-end based off of Django.

Q: So now as you’re looking to move some of the divisions over, is that going to be an API system to connect with them or is it going to end up being completely moved over to WordPress?

A: We are actively working on an integration system to sort of marry the two systems together. Presto is what it’s called. The main USA Today CMS is architectured with an API that we can use, and that’s something we’re definitely looking to utilize for our other divisions. It really depends.

I don’t believe there’s any call to use WordPress exclusively as the front-end facing instead of Presto, that does fairly well architectured out for us to use that site. However, we do have people looking into trying to spin up their own sort of mini sub groups with more exclusive content and that is definitely looking to pull in with Presto and WordPress-driven data to use on the front-end and that is generally hosted by WordPress.

Anyone else?

Q: Hey, James, Athletics, I was curious just if you could rattle off some of the other sites running on this?

A: Sure, let’s see, our oldest one is For The Win, which is, which originally was the one we launched originally to cast WordPress as a platform in general.

It was not VIP and it was self hosted on Amazon and that was fun. We also have the […] Entertain This, we have College, we have High School Sports, which actually just launched. We have America’s Markets, we have […] and a few others that are currently in development. I actually don’t know off the top of my head the entire list.

Q: […] The other divisions looking to use WordPress, is that really driven by your group, your developers?

A: A combination of both, we originally chose WordPress for it’s ease of editorial
and for it’s ease of editorial tools and our editorial department was so enthusiastic about that, so once that started going, we as developers preferred this as a platform as we felt it was more modular and our group drove it and the editorial folks within our division also wished to continue using WordPress as a platform choice.

Even though there was obviously some hiccups along the way, about various capabilities but you know, we continue to extend our Lawrence to basically cover anything needed. Just so I’m clear, USA Today Sports media group actually contains both editorial and engineering, we’re not engineering exclusive.

Any other questions?

Q: Matthew, Athletics, when you talk about integrating Sports, […] Mongo DB, are you ingesting that in PHP or on the front-end?

A: Generally php, we haven’t really had a need yet to have to do our own live streaming front-end, which would obviously means we couldn’t use like caching like WordPress would provide, so that is something we’ll definitely do in the future. But for now, most of the data we’re ingesting, if not like vendor-driven, widget-type thing, is just generally in the php, but with the VIP server calls.

Q: Steve, the question is are you unifying your archives?

A: Um, I don’t believe at the moment. Potentially, generally, correct me if I’m wrong, most of the stuff, we’ve done so far has been very like trendy, up to date, we’ve seen like 30-40 articles published in a single day. So what’s old generally isn’t considered that much. I mean obviously as we move more and more of the main USA Today platform and that sort of stuff on to VIP, moving content from that system that we already have onto WordPress it’s something we’d definitely consider. But right now, it’s just not a priority.

Q: Let me ask a follow up question. Even in the active system (…) when you eventually […] content, do you keep that or flush it out?

A: We don’t get rid of them, we tend to have tentpole sites, which is World Cup is a great example. We have an event, World Cup 2014, and we put it up. Obviously it’s just really useful for World Cup 2014, but we don’t get rid of that content. Generally the strategy right now is keep the actual site archived and continue to iterate. We would probably eventually have a more hub-based solution which would have that old content flowed in,
using our existing tools to pull and manipulate content across our VIP offerings.

Anything else?

Going once, going twice.

Thank you very much.

 

See the presentations from previous Big Media & Enterprise WordPress Meetups. For Big Media & Enterprise WordPress Meetup groups in other cities, see the full list on VIP Events and join your local group. 

Want more information about WordPress services for media or enterprise sites? Get in touch.

Why Choose WordPress: A Government Perspective – Now With Full Transcript

WordPress.com VIP Director of Platform Services, Peter Slutsky, presented to the DigitalGov University about using WordPress CMS to build government websites, along with Dan Munz, from the Consumer Finance Protection Bureau, last year, now published with full transcript. 

DigitalGov is brought to you by the Office of Citizen Services and Innovative Technologies in the U.S. General Services Administration and their job is to help government agencies build a 21st century digital government.

“Can WordPress be a full-fledged CMS? Our experience is absolutely yes, it can.” — Dan Munz, Deputy Assistant Director for Consumer Engagement at Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.

In this presentation you’ll learn:

  • How to determine if WordPress is a good option for your agency
  • The important technical considerations
  • The biggest challenges and successes CFPB had with implementing WordPress
  • The resources you’ll need to implement it and keep it sustainable
  • How to get buy-in and make the business case to switch/choose WordPress
  • And a Q&A from the attendees

Below is the video of the presentation: 

Good morning everyone, thanks for joining us for the second event in the Why Choose series.

Our first event featured why you might choose Drupal as your content management system or CMS and this event of course will focus on WordPress. Before we begin, I’d like to introduce our presenters.

First up we’ll have Peter Slutsky, he’s the director of platform services at Automattic, where he focuses on expanding the WordPress footprint in politics, government and nonprofit arenas. We’ll also have Dan Munz, who’s the product director for consumerfinance.gov at the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, which is the Flagship digital property, and he’s responsible for leading the daily of product-focused web team, articulating prodict priorities, and a release roadmap and shepherding individual digital products like the Bureau’s online knowledge base at CFPB.

So with that, I’ll hand it over to Peter.

Peter: Thank you, I feel like I’m going live on the Today Show.  So first of all, everyone welcome. Thank You so much for joining us this morning. My name is Peter Slutsky. I’m very excited to be with you guys. Let me quickly give you a little background on who I am and what I’m doing here, then I’m going to take you through just a couple slides and then you an overview of WordPress and some of the work that I’m doing to expand the WordPress footprint in Government.

So I started my career working in politics, and lived in DC for a long time. In those roles, I worked in new media, back when new media was actually new and in communications and some organizing on some campaigns. And in about 2007, I got connected to the folks that were launching  causes on Facebook, and I was a consultant for them which kind of opened up a whole new world of technology and the intersection of technology and digita and politics, which was kind of perfect for my past experience. I went to work for a company called Ming, which was doing some really cool things early on in social networking on and went to an early stage start up which led me to Automattic and WordPress, which has been phenomenal.

I’ve been there for about a year, it’s been an eye opening experience. I love the company. I’ve been a WordPress fan and WordPress user, as I’m sure many of you are, for a long time.

So let me start off by saying that I’m not a developer, so if you want to have more technical discussions, we ca do that and I can try, but chances are, I will pump the question and get an answer for you, and can follow up later.

I’m on the business team, and my role is to kind of evangelize and run, lead our business development team in government, non-profit and political space.

So, throughout my career, I’ve worked with a lot of really cool innovators in Silicone Valley and in Washington DC and now up in New York City where I live, and i’ve been super impressed working in the government space.

I feel like we are still really early on in the evolution of technology and innovation but we’ve had just amazing strides over the last couple years in the reinvention of digital strategy, of open government and open source technology, and you know, working with people like Dan who you’ll hear from later and others across government. It’s just been a phenomenal experience.

That being said, I do still think that we’re still super early and that we’re on kind of the first wave, the first generations of the platform and the technology that you’ll see deployed into governments, and we’re obviously in a lot of ways, we’re riding a Drupal wave right now.

One of the things that I’ve heard a lot about in the last year, as I’ve begun to have more and more conversations is, that people are using WordPress as a blogging software and oftentimes behind a firewall for internal communications, and inter-agency communications.

But increasingly, now there’s a desire to use WordPress as a full CMS and to use it for top line websites and agency, projects and micro sites at all levels of government. It’s been really cool to see it, interesting conversations.

So what I want to do is take you guys through the WordPress Eco system and kind of re-introduce you to where WordPress is today in 2013, because I think we’re literally this year, in May, celebrating our 10th university.

So, it’s a really, we’re not grown up yet, but we have come a long way and there’s a lot of perception out there a that I want to work on resolving as we now get into our early adulthood.

So let me just take you through the slides. There’s three flavors of WordPress. There is the self-hosted, WordPress, open-source service which was founded about 10 years ago by Matt Mullenweg, who’s the founder of Automattic and also was the first lead developer for WordPress.

Anyone can go on to WordPress.org, download the open-source, free WordPress software. You can run it on your own servers, you can host it on any number of cloud hosts, Amazon, Rackspace, wp-engine, BlueHost, Remote, Go Daddy, all those, the web host companies that we have good relationships with.

And, WordPress.org, you really have complete control over the code, the codebase, the experience, the fees, the plugins, the accessibility, the third-parties, the technology you bring in.

So in that way it’s really a model framework for building anything from an agency blog or a small web site, a microsite all the way up to large sites like The New York Times, and CNN and I’ll show you some of those great examples after.

We always say with great power comes responsibility, working as a developer or working with a few developers, you can do great things, but it’s also easy to build a plane that you fly too fast. So a lot of times I’m talking with people about sort of picking and choosing which plugins they want and streamline themes and decluttering to make it the most efficient, fast, responsive website, as possible.

So that’s WordPress.org. WordPress.com is the largest WordPress site in the world. It’s one large ultimate site. As of today, I think we have about 45 million sites running on WordPress.com including many in government space, the political and nonprofit space.

Basically, it’s a saas model, software as a service. So we do all of the backend infrastructure, hosting, CDN, storage, backup, security pieces so what you really have to work with and deal with and think about is the front end, the design, and the content, and that’s, that’s something that I know that people working with limited budget constraints or limited resources in terms of development, that’s something that’s very good.

Often times, I’m working with cities and states that have great design teams, they know CSS and Javascript, but they don’t have a good background php or in the code base. So using WordPress.com has been a real asset to them.

The third bucket in this line of buckets is WordPress.com VIP. This is my team. So the VIP team is sort of the best of both worlds, WordPress.org and WordPress.com It’s a SaaS hosting and support model, for enterprise-level websites. I can show you some examples later, but we power like a huge amount of the media sites and the large websites you probably visit every day.

On WordPress.com VIP, we allow you to run your own code base, your own plug ins, but you have direct access to our developers and they can do code reviews to make sure everything you’re doing is safe and secure, and scalable.

Those are things that I’m going to touch on in a minute but those are kind of some of the main questions that i’m getting as I’m talking to folks in the government space.

Really quickly about Automattic, Automattic is basically the commercial arm, the parent company if you will, of WordPress.com. It was founded in 2005, by Matt Mullenweg, who you can see, if you look A-U-T-O- and the M-A-T-T-I-C that M-A-T-T is for Matt. We had all different kinds of products, and for those of you who are running WordPress right now or thinking about running WordPress in your agency, I really recommend you take a look at automattic.com to see all the suite of services.

We have Akismet, VaultPress, Jet pack, VideoPress, and Gravatar, and all these products are really plug and play features to WordPress ecosystem, and some of them are also stand alone products that can really help drive all different kinds of features for your website, so check that out.

We’re about 150 employees, we work all around the globe. I’m sitting in Brooklyn, New York, but my team is in Europe, Eastern Europe, Japan, Australia and all throughout America and Canada, it’s really interesting. And to note, we also don’t have company e-mail. We don’t do internal e-mail. We communicate all by a series of internal blogs that are all linked together and so it’s a super, kind of new-age company and the work that we’re doing reaches a ton of people. We reach about half a billion people every month.

We have some great investors, which you can see here, including The New York Times. Who’s one of our big users and partners.

So our core philosophy of WordPress is simple and elegant, but also really powerful and flexible. Which is kind of the driving measure with which we measure ourselves with our software. We want anyone from a local blogger anywhere in the world to CFPB.gov or Nasa or BOJ or the State Department or the White House or anyone to be able to come on and build something that scales to their needs.

We have a lot of flexibility, you know, plugins and themes and APIs, and all these things allow you to you take the base software and make it as robust as you need to.

And in this role of diminishing budgets, diminishing resources, that is where we’ve seen a lot of the adoption of WordPress come in. It’s fast and easy, but very powerful which we’ll go over in a minute. You’re very safe, very secure, and super scalable.

One of the key points also is that it’s open. It’s open-source, this is something that’s kind of the driving force behind not only our software that we built, but the company itself. We’re an open-source company and that’s how we’re able to work in this distributed way across the world and make it work.

We are strong believers in rapid iteration, we put out three major releases every year. Upgrading WordPress is super easy, and for those of you again who are running WordPress right now or are thinking about running WordPress in the near future, I really recommend that you take a look at the upgrades and updates.

I talk to people every day in the government space that are running old software and that introduces a lot of issues. So if you have questions about that, or need recommendations or best practices, definitely reach out to me, iIll give you my e-mail and I can help you with that.

We’re the most powerful CMS on the web. We power 17.9% of the entire internet is powered by WordPress.  60+ million sites, 100,000 new sites are joining our ranks every day. We just had a major influx, there are stories you can check out about some defection when Tumblr was bought by Yahoo. And now we’re getting a lot of that traffic over to WordPress.com, which is really exciting.

We have 25,000 plgugins, 15,000 themes, and more every day. We have an amazing core group that works on the wordpress.org team that helps to get and manage all the code base for the plug ins and the themes that come in to make sure there’s no vulnerabilities, that there’s no hacking, prospecting, to make a website vulnerable. So, it’s a huge community, but we’ve done a really great job of building it. There’s a ton of resources out there.

So, let me talk quickly about WordPress as an enterprise CMS. My biggest challenge coming into this job was, you know, WordPress powers the world, by far the largest CMS around, but when you look at the .gov space, the federal government and in some cases state, definitely not local, federal and state, there’s this perception that, yeah, we’re going to run our blogs on WordPress, but it’s not, it doesn’t scale to an enterprise CMS and obviously a lot of that  came from the decisions that the White House made in an earlier administration, to use Drupal, and a huge eco-system has been built up around Drupal in DC.

But let me just go through WordPress as an enterprise CMS, these are the majority of our VIP clients. These are the people that we’re building this and developing for every single day. On a CMS, you can customize your data and decide what everything looks like. We have multi-author responsibility where you can set rolls and permissions.

So, in some cases there are hundreds, or in some news rooms, thousands of people that are practicing the WordPress dashboard and that are leveraging, something that has evolved. There’s also multisite, which is the ability run multiple sites on on a single codebase within one organization. So we see this all the time in universities, at state government level, we’re working with GFA, as they’re scouting out a new project that’s super cool that involves WordPress multisite, but this could be an amazing application for your agency, you know, to kind of consolidate.

That’s one of the big things that I hear is that people are working in silos, not just across agencies, but across teams within agencies. They have different CMSs, they have no CMSs, they have a topline Drupal CMS, or a WordPress CMS but then everything else is on an old proprietary platform or no platform at all.

That’s one of the big things that I hear is that people are working in silos, not just across agencies, but across teams within agencies. They have different CMSs, they have no CMSs, they have a topline Drupal CMS, or a WordPress CMS but then everything else is on an old proprietary platform or no platform at all and WordPress multisite is definitely something that you guys should check out and that our team supports. If we saw more adoption of it, which we will over the next couple years of government, it would be an amazing thing for technology and innovation and also for cost savings obviously – it’s free.

All kinds of integrations that help power the enterprise CMS, APIs, plug-ins, all kinds of social extensibility, social plugins, plublicize, to Twitter and Facebook, and LinkedIn and Tumblr, and to push content in and out.

And then also, we have a VIP feature partner program, which we’ve basically gone out and curated the best technology companies and brought them into our fold. So all of our clients, and the people that are using WordPress.com VIP et increasingly into other products on WordPress.com, they get access to all these great tools.

And we also we have this great team of developers who’ve built this really great set of plug-ins that help with edit flow or for high octane news room, which could be amazing application for a government agency where there are different departments, different teams, different publishing, where instead of working inside Google Docs and on email, this is a way, I’ll give you an example with Edit Flow, a way to work directly within the Dashboard within the CMS to edit content and then push it to the, and then publish it to production.

WordPress is super scalable. Sometimes I’ll have calls with IT folks in government and they’ll say “well, I’m worried that it’s no scalable past a certain point. I read this here, or I saw this here.” A lot of it, if you Google and you start to get nervous or paranoid about these issues, a lot of those articles are from like 2004, 2005, 2006. We’ve come a long way.

WordPress.com, like I said, is the best example, but we have about 4 billion page views every month, we’re publishing 500,000 posts, 400,000 comments, and that’s all on one single installation of WordPress. So when I talk to government agencies that are scoping WordPress, I will bring our systems team on the phone with in-house IT folks and we’ll have a really great conversation about how to optimize that set up so that you can almost guarantee, 100% uptime, SLA, and all these things that I know the CIOs all are looking for when they’re scoping out new platforms.

From a security standpoint, that’s another thing that I hear about, I’m sure that that’s one of the biggest things, that, as web folks that you’re hearing as well “well WordPress isn’t secure”, and I hear this all the time even in conversations between WordPress and Drupal, people say “well, open source php, dynamic websites, these are not safe and secure things the government to be running and that’s totally, totally not true.

Oftentimes, the stories that you’ll see, where there’s been a hack or a vulnerability, or an issue, that comes from either the host, or from running an outdated version of WordPress, or some kind of call stripping error that a developer has introduced, but that’s why our team does expensive code reviews.

We review every line of code to make sure that all of our clients and all the people that are running WordPress at an enterprise level are really kind of inoculated from those types of issues. We’ve been vetted by all kinds of agencies and all the big players in IT security and we’ve gotten great feedback. So WordPress is a scalable, secure, platform, that can take you all the way up to where you need to go.

We’re mobile-friendly, mobile ready. The most exciting thing to me in the world is thinking about where the future is going, especially in the context of government, when it comes to mobile. The fact that, you know, we’re now putting all of this information and data, and giving it to people to develop apps and all kinds of integrations with healthcare and what Dan is doing at the CFPD, with consumer data. It’s so exciting and I think we’re super early on, but WordPress is completely mobile friendly.

You can make pretty much any theme responsive. We have great APIs, and we have themes that are mobile optimized. So you don’t have to have a separate track of mobile development and web development. It’s pretty much all one development package at this point.

Really quickly, a little bit more about VIP services just because I want to make sure that people know, if you are going to use WordPress or if you are using WordPress, there is a company, Automattic, that is behind the service and that could help support and scale and be a resource to you or to an agency partner or to a consultant.

We do this all the time where we step in and basically get a developer seat for self-hosted support and you can have unlimited access to our team of developers, who are really world-class, top WordPress and php developers and we will help you with best practices, code reviews, advice on plug ins, and all those kinds of things.

And then also, if you get to a point where you decide you want to host outside of your environment, WordPress.com can be a great option for you. And like I said, we do host a lot of government clients, and also Fortune 500 companies, and big media companies which I’ll show you in two seconds.

So really quickly, when you’re working with WordPress, your company, these are just some of the organizations using WordPress, The White House, DOJ, The House of Representatives, all throughout the Senate, DOD, State, CFDB, Library of Congress, EPA, and it’s growing every day. Everyday I have an exciting conversation with someone whose doing some kind of amazing innovation.

On the media front, we have our CNNs, CBS local, New York Times, Time, Tech Crunch, Venture Beat, all the big tech blogs, and it accounts for a lot of our traffic, but it also accounts for a lot of the energy and and the development resources that we put into our core products. If something is good for The New York Times, it’s going to be good for core software which is going to be good for you guys. It’s a really awesome eco-system and one that builds and builds and builds.

Let me close off real quick with this. We are doing a WordPress in Government half day workshop on June 13th in DC. It’s going to be really fun, a bunch of our partners, I think GSA will present,  agency partners and some interesting people, from Washington and around the Washington world. The Washington Post, which I don’t know if you guys know this, but The Washington Post actually serve a lot of their traffic through WordPress.

During the of 2012 campaign, I think at one point at the end, 85% of traffic was being served through a WordPress site, which was super exciting for us.  And now they’re official partners of ours and we’re working with them to help scale all these amazing products that they’re building. So if you want to come to WordPress in Government event, then let me know. Shoot me a note on e-mail, or here’s my email address and my Twitter handle. I would love to have you there.

Let me close out by saying, again that I’ve worked with some amazing people and I just applaud everyone who’s inside of government right now and innovating. It’s the place to be, and when I work and have meetings in Silicon Valley and in New York, everyone is trying to tap into the market of, you know, engaging with citizens, and I think you guys are on the front line of that, so I would love to be a partner and I would love to figure out ways for us to drive WordPress inside your agencies.

So please get in touch and I really appreciate your time.

Moderator: Thanks Peter. Before I pass it to dan, I wanted to remind everyone that we will take questions at the end and to please type your questions in the chat box. And we’ll also include, Peter, your email address in our follow up e-mail to attendees.

So if you didn’t get a chance to write it down, and have questions for Peter, we’ll send it.

So, as I mentioned our next presenter will be Dan Munz and he’s the product director for ConsumerFinance.gov.

Dan: Thanks a lot and thanks every body for spending a little bit of time this morning listening to Peter and I talk about WordPress and our experience with it.

I’m going to start off just with a little bit of background. First real quick about who I am and why on Earth you should listen to me about any of this stuff. As it was said, I’m the product director for consumerfinance.gov, at the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, which is DC’s newest federal start-up agency. I’m responsible for leading product development of the Bureau’s site consumerfinance.gov and some of our other digital products. And it’s important for me to say that I work with an amazing team of designers, developers, data analysts, project managers and new media strategists, who make all of this stuff I’m about to talk about go.

I’m a proud alumni of BGSA Center of Excellence in Digital Government. Before that, I spent about 5 years in political campaigns, non-profits and federal government, understanding how the modern web and the civic sector fit together and understanding the emerging technologies like WordPress make that happen and make it happen quickly.

Today, I’m going to give you a little bit of an overview of the Bureau and of consumerfinance.gov, talk a little bit about how we use WordPress and how it fits into our overall kind of web architecture. Give you a few thoughts about how to use it successfully and what to be careful of kind of from point of view and talk about a few sort of big, big hairy questions that keep us up at night.

So really quickly, a little bit of background on the bureau. If you want to trace our founding to kind of one sentiment or one thought, it’s probably this article published by then law professor Elizabeth Warren in the summer of 2007 called “Unsafe at Any Rate” in which she observed that it is impossible to buy a toaster that has a one-in-five chance of bursting into flames and burning down your house. But it is possible to refinance an existing home with a mortgage that has the same one-in-five chance of turning out to be much more destructive than you thought or that you were able to realize at the time.

And her insight then,  was there ought to be a federal agency regulator responsible for making consumer markets and consumer products work for consumers  and for responsible lenders and prevent exploding mortgages from making their way into the economy. That, as I said, was in summer 2007. A bunch of stuff happened to the American economy after that and in July 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform Act that created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. By July 2011, we were about 100 or 200ish people. Here’s a picture of some of them. By July 2012, we were close to our current capacity, which is 1000-1100.

So we’ve had a pretty steep growth curve, and this is where we work. It’s at 1700 G. Street NW, if anyone’s in DC, come say hi, you can see our big friendly logo on the wall. That’s a little bit about the CFPB.

So now let me shift to talk about our site, consumerfinance.gov. It was launched in February 2011, five months ahead of schedule. It’s worth noting that the bureau itself didn’t actually open for business in a meaningful way until July 20011 and so for about 5-6 months, our website was not so much the website of a federal agency as the blog of a bunch of people who were building a federal agency. And we’ve had to evolve of the time, as a bureau matures and offer things it didn’t use to to offer, like complaint intake and consumer engagement regulations enforcement.

Consumerfinance.gov is the Bureau’s only digital property, we own digital property, and we’re actually pretty proud of that. When people ask how many websites we have, the answer is one, I’m personally pretty dedicated to making sure it is only ever one. Consumers are our core audience, like I said, we do regulation, we do enforcement, we do a lot of industry and other partner-facing work, but as far as our web brand is concerned, consumers are our core audience.

And to give you a sense of size, we do about 900,000 unique page views per month. We’re no WordPress.com, but we do okay. This is what our stack looks like. Going from the bottom up, we use Google Analytics to do our web analytics, we’re hosted on Amazon web services, we use Akamal as our content distribution network. At the top of the stack, there is WordPress, we also use Django, which is a pyhton-based web application framework to build a lot of stuff, but I’ll talk more about that in a second.

There are, to be sure, a lot of other technologies floating around in there that connect you to our our site. Apache obviously is in there, but as far as the technologies that surface to a user, this is the main stack.

So you notice at the top we have WordPress and Django there and this is a microcosm of the big CMS vs Framework questions. One thing I will say by the way is that I think Peter was maybe a little modest in talking about the question about can WordPress be a full-fledged CMS. Our experience is that absolutely yes it can.

It’s just uncontroversially true. There are things you have to do to make that happen successfully and there are things you can do to make it happen unsuccessfully, which I’ll talk about in a little bit.

Our experience so far has borne out the idea that WordPress manages content and is a good system for doing that. We use WordPress and Django together. We found that WordPress is a good fit for things that are standardized content types. So when you think about our blog, or our newsroom, or regulations, or testimonies, or speeches, or reports,  any of the many products we have that are sort of standardized content that we put out on a regular basis that we can manage in a sort of a bulk presentation way.

It has actually good content management user interface, UX designers sometimes referred to as the interface UX forgot and I agree they’re not always awesome and WordPress, or at least the self-hosted version which we use has a pretty solid back end. It also lets us cleanly distribute editorial workflow. There are plugins for that, but even WordPress out of the box has an ok version of this. And web application frameworks like Django, although there are CMSs for Django, tend to not do an awesome job at it.

So what we’re using Django for is really whenever we’re doing custom app development. Anything that’s highly interactive or highly database driven, or has a really complex taxonomy. Anything that depends a lot on search or complex navigation, or Ajax and things like that.

And we use it mostly for things that have relatively infrequent content updates, though there are certainly exceptions to that. I think the short way to think about this is we use wordpress when we want more people doing fewer things. We want more people around the Bureau to be able to create a blog post or create a press release, or repeatable simple things like that.

We use Django when we want fewer people to be able to do more things. So Django is the language that our designers and developers will use to build an application, and they can build a full application from bottom to scratch. It can be data viz oriented, have a lot of complex interaction. So it has a lot more flexibility and strength but you do have to be a developer to get in there and build with it.

To tackle kind of the main question that frames our time today, why choose WordPress, these are some of the reasons that I think at least we chose and why we continue to choose it. One is a basic level. You have a c (content) that needs m’ing (management). I remember a survey a while back when the federal, “hey everybody get rid of so many websites” order came about. Someone called all .gov sites and tried to count what CMSs they were all using, and I think 1,200 came back as none, which is not great.

So you know, WordPress is one of a family of software called CMS, and if you just have a bunch of content on a site that right now is just static HTML, you should get yourself a content management system period. It lets you get started really quickly and cheaply. Even the hosted version, for me to have hosting, it’s relatively simple to set up and install and get started. It’s really well documented in their documentation and online. So googling is really your help function.

Like i said, it has a pretty usable admin experience. It has a really nice syndication features. It makes it trivial to create an RSS feed content, there are plugins that let you really easily create a JSON API for the content. So WordPress has the potential to lend itself really nicely to being just one member of your web ecosystem.

Data in, data out are relatively clean. And one thing that is really important that I can’t stress enough.It was a robust well-managed community both on the kind of “I need tech support” side but also on the code side. There’s a lot of great development happening, there are a lot of plugins for core functionalities  that are relatively mature and really well maintained. So it’s relatively new, but it’s certainly past the point of being experimental technology, it’s absolutely usable.

The flip side of these things is kind of thing is that if you do choose WordPress, one thing that’s important to say is that WordPress is not natively a web application framework.And this is a statement to me that seemed obvious and I Googled it and it turns out to be a relatively controversial statement. It’s clear to me that WordPress, whatever its ambitions is not yet a full-fledged framework application. It is a CMS, and you know, I’m absolutely sure that it’s possible to build really complex web applications but it’s not what it does best. There are other frameworks that do it much better, much easier out of the box.

If you’re going to choose WordPress, you should really understand that the kind of four walls of what you’d consider to be content management, are really what you’re getting, at least that’s been our experience.

You still need designers and developers. It’s really important. It’s easy to think, I’m going to get WordPress and I’ll have a great website, but then you find out that, oh, well, you actually need designers to make it brand compliant, to do layout really well, you need UX professionals, to make sure your information architecture is right, so you understand what your content types are. You need developers to get the thing running, inspect plugins, make sure they work well, things like that.

So it doesn’t really free you from kind of needing a great design and dev team on staff. Some core cabilities are still maturing, the flipside of the robust plugin community,in some things I think of as core capabilities are kind of left to plugins, which, robust as they are, are still in development.

One great example of this is called Ramp, which is a plugin written for a use case that we certainly have which is moving from content from sort of a staging server to a production server, selectively in a way that doesn’t require to you delete your production database and start over. And you know, it’s a great plugin, it’s really incredible for us that it was written. But it doesn’t do some simple things like make removing content from production really easy. Or give you a unique ID that sort of syncs between staging and production.

So, that kind of stuff, you can run into it. And it’s only really when you realize that you need that functionality that you go “oh man, we need that” and then you kind of hope that the people who maintain that include that feature. To an extent, that’s true with all open source software. But we found that, in a few cases to be true of even things you’d think of as kind of core functionality.

I think this is another frame on Peter’s “with great power comes great responsibility” quote. It’s easy to do things right with WordPress, but it can be even easier to do things wrong. It makes it really trivial to upgrade the site, to add new plugins, so change your theme files and if you’re like me, php still looks like Matrix code to you.

It does make it potentially even easier to do things wrong. Before proceeding, some things have been really helpful for us, one is understanding your information architecture, and I mean seriously understanding it. And this is something you should do with any CMS, and any website.

But it’s especially true in a scenario where you have, at least for us, a hosted version of WordPress and you have to be pretty thoughtful about what kinds of content you’ll have, how they’ll relate to each other, what kind of taxonomies you’ll be able to use site-wide to be able to manage that content.

How you want content to show up in different places and it’s really important to kind of think out for your enterprise a step or two or three beyond where you are now. For us, we were in a major growth situation, where if you look at the Bureau, kind of 2 or 3 years into existence, the range that we offer the public are just totally different, and evolved every time, ’cause we’re growing so rapidly.

And so one challenge for us has been keeping our view of our digital architecture up-to-date with the architecture of the Bureau’s public offerings. So that’s really important.

A flip side of that, or a companion to that is understanding the enterprise. Understanding how you’re going to want content to be managed, who you want to have permissions to do that, what permissions you want them to have and reverse-engineered to the question of how you can configure that in a tech capability way.

One other thing I’d say is to think about search. This one area where I think WordPress, at least when we started using it, is not super strong and it’s, you know, for obvious reasons not up to the task of search across, example, WordPress and all of the stuff we keep in our Django-based apps.

So you’ll want to think about what your search solution is, we use USA search, which is a great one. There are things like Solr, which is a search library for Django, which is really great or for python.

The other tip I give is understand how your security shop thinks about open-source software. What Peter said earlier is absolutely right. Anyone who said that open-source software is inherently less secure or more secure than proprietary software is to my mind just flat wrong.

At the same time, using WordPress, does mean that, one way or another, if you,re doing it right, you’re going to have to take code that someone else wrote and run it our your servers. And that’s going to require you to at least understand and maybe have a few heart to heart conversations with your security shop to understand what’s the process for reviewing a plugin that we want to use, and the process for reviewing an upgrade.

It may turn out to be painless, or painful. If you dive into this without understanding how they’re thinking about that challenge, it’s almost certain to be painful.

So the next horizon issues for us, from a web strategy standpoint broadly, one is structuring content and taxonomies more consistently. This is kind of an issue I flagged earlier. Understanding how all the content we have relates to one another, and how kind of the information architecture that’s emerging can be reflected efficiently in the way we divide content on the back end. Something we’re always striving to do better but, it’s something that I think keeps us up at night.

Being smart about pushing reusable code blocks into modules or plugins. I think we’re learning all the time, about what kind of single purpose things we build, turn out to be enduringly useful and how we can push those into blocks of code or blocks of functionality that we an reuse.

And to me the biggest one is abstracting this question of templating to be platform agnostic.  More and more I think you see kind of really mature web organizations thinking about the engine that templates and serves sites to the public, being potentially really different from the engine used to manage and store content, kind of the database.

I think our kind of hypothesis, is that if we’re able to separate those functionalities and create a layer that pulls content from WordPress or from Django, or somewhere else and can serve it with the same consistent template, we’ll be in a really good position.

This is a particularly important issue for government, not only because you’re sometimes integrating multiple content management database structures, but also because occasionally, if you’re like us, you’re called on to integrate kind of a third party piece of software that has a public facing component into the site. And regardless of what kind of CMS you mostly use, it can be a real challenge to do that in a way that’s kind of brand consistent and well-integrated.

So we’re really actively thinking about investing in the capability to take the question of templating and sucking content out of somewhere and serving it onto the web in a really uniform way and really separating that from the core database stuff, where content is kept.

So that’s pretty much all I have to say, I hope that’s given you kind of overview of how we think about and use WordPress and how we think about managing web content and having better web properties generally. Like I said I really appreciate everyone on the call taking the time and I’m eager to take some questions.

Moderator: Okay, thanks Dan. We do have a couple of questions.

Both you and Peter mentioned security, would it be preferable to install WordPress on an intranet server, as opposed to using it as a third-party method?

Now I don’t know if Peter you want to address that or Dan or both of you?

Peter: It’s hard to say, depending on the use case is. The person with the question should definitely reach out to me and I get some more solid recommendations.

Dan: I mean the only thing I’d say is I’d go back to my point earlier that there’s not really and this is partly because I think Federal security shops are, while not new, not necessarily having standard out of the box procedures for reviewing open-source software, it’s hard to say there’s a preferable way to do it.The really preferable way to do it is have a conversation with your security team before you pick a direction to proceed in.

Moderator: Okay. You mentioned, Dan, that you obviously need developer and technical support to use WordPress. Can you elaborate relative to other CMSs, is it more, less, the same?

Dan: My guess is a little bit less than Drupal, although, I have to say I don’t have a ton of experience with Drupal, my understanding is that you know, partly because it was kind of born as a CMS, there’s a little bit more configuration complexity there to it. But if you think about the spectrum of things, if you think about something like WordPress.com, or any kind of hosted service, that’s where you really need the least developer support.

You still need design unless you’re building a website with no front-end, maybe you want your visitors to consume pure JSON, but if that’s not the case, you’ll need design. But in terms of dev and tech resources, anything hosted externally is the easiest solution. Anything hosted internally, if you want to do it professionally, there’s just going to be some level of having folks who can think about the architecture of the site, having it think about scalability, caching and serving and things like that. You’d be surprised at like the really dumb things that can happen if you don’t have folks like that around. Then, as I said, the top of the spectrum is frameworks ike — like pure web applications like Django and ruby on rails and things like that that are really purely application development frameworks and really, you know, anyone can get started but that’s kind of where a developer or designer just has to play really, a really dominant

Peter: And also, just to weigh in on that a little. One of the things I’ve been working on is really helping to identify resources, especially in and around the DC area. So talking with a lot of companies that do web development and bringing them up to speed on WordPress as an enterprise product, so, if, and there are some really great resources out there, so if you know you want to do something that is a little more complicated than the out of the box piece, let me know and I’m happy to connect you.

Also, as I said, part of what we do is supporting folks that are self-hosting, to be that developer resource. If you have someone that knows WordPress or php but doesn’t feel like they can extend it to the point where you need to get it, we can be kind of that bridge to help you in that way. I think to answer the fundamental question, all these things, when you’re talking about doing something that’s bigger than out of the box requires some level of expertise and that includes developers and designers. But for the most part, when I talk to people bout, deciding between WordPress and Drupal, and let’s just say Junla, it’s never a question of, this one needs nothing and this one needs something. It’s always a question of, where are the resources, and also what’s the long-term strategy. Like for example with Drupal, they do a once a year or once every ten month release period, or updates, and that oftentimes will lead to you needing to tear down the house and rebuild it more often, whereas WordPress is more iterative. And you can update as you go and theres a lot more backwards compatibility. And that’s the kind of thing we see a lot in conversations.

Moderator: Great, thanks. Could one of you actually show specifically what the back end looks like?I  don’t know Peter or Dan, who would be the best person. Peter, I can pass control back to you just so we can get a better understanding of how it works and how we can better use it.

Peter: Whoever had that question, there’s all kinds of resources, screenshots, screenshares online, so if this doesn’t answer all your questions, that will.

Moderator: Maybe Dan you could answer this question. With all the API work being done in Drupal, will it scale or work with WordPress?

Dan: I mean it’s a little bit tough to tell. It depends on the individual project, but in general, I think it’s really important to understand that one of the kind of main goals of API work generally is to make data transport really agnostic to these kind of platform questions. Depending on how, I mean it sounds like the question might be about content migration between Drupal and WordPress and operating them together. If the person who asked that question wants to drop a little clarifying note, that’d be great.

Part of the reason I think it’s good for everyone, both Drupal and WordPress, they focused pretty hard on making it easy to create APIs and build webpages on top of webpage stores, is that it doesn’t lock you in to any of those. Your data’s really portable, it’s reusable in web applications. So if I wanted to build a web application that pulled in my content from Drupal and my content from WordPress, inefficiencies aside, I could probably do that.

So, when you think APIs, you should think inter-operability, more or less no matter what. Like I said, I’m sure their fields look different, they’re stored differently, but in the abstract, that’s the answer.

Moderator: Great, thanks. So Peter, are you-all set?

Peter: I hope you guys can see it. Here’s the basic dashboard, if you see people walking around the world with WordPress, wp admin shirts on, all the nerds like me, this is kind of our core, the core tenant ofWordPress that has remained constant throughout the 10 years that we’ve had it.

Dan: Peter, can I just say that i love that you have two categories of blog posts, music and other.

Peter: Oh yeah, I’ve really extended this one greatly. Yes, so this just my own personal blog, so it doesn’t have any complexity to it, and I’ve seen The Washington Post’s dashboard and The New York Times’ Dashboard and it’s absolutely insane.

They build all these custom things for editing and edit flow, and permissions and all these types of things.

But very basic. Basically, here’s our, this is how you add a new post and a post is content-type, that you can even assign as, assign to different parts of your web site.

It can be media, it can be text, it can be anything. We have obviously taxonomy around tagging and so you can have robust search. This is the uploaders where you can add images and links and then have you, in your library, you have all of your uploaded content, and it can kind of practice a storage area for you and then you can click in and embed content, so that’s great for photos if you’re one to put beautiful HD photos, those kinds of things look great.

On the user front, this is something that may interest you guys. Say you have 30 people in your office who are assuming different roles and you want them to have different permissions, you can invite new users and you can change roles to be an administrator, editor, author, contributor, will then trigger access to different parts of the site, different controls of the site, which is a great feature, in an organization where there’s a lot of folks.

What I really recommend you do, because it’s free and it takes 10 seconds and it’s easy, is go to WordPress.com, sign up for free account, and just start to poke around, build your own little site and from there you can really start to play around. And as I said, it’s really that easy, to at least get started.

The stuff that Dan’s talking about, it’s all super interesting, the layers of framework that he’s put on top of it. Or to just get a basic site up and running that has pretty much all the full functionality that you would need to publish, it only takes a couple of minutes and then from there, the sky is really the limit. We also have great stats which I love checking. I’ll show you what a loser I am right now, but you can really see kind of all your stats here in one place. Not as good as google analytics, but it’s getting these. It’s pretty fun to watch.

One of the things that I definitely recommend you do too, if you’re running your own WordPress site is go to jetpack.me and install that plugin. It’s a way to bring a lot of the development of WordPress.com onto your self hosted site and in doing that, you get the chat functionality and other cool things to see and to try.

Moderator: Peter, can you limit specific roles to specific pages?

Peter: You can. There’s some stuff that you can do, definitely, and that’s something that we get a lot of questions about. So there’s definitely, there’s great documentation if you go to Google and type in WordPress Goals, there’s a link that I send around to people a lot that clarifies all the different pieces of the roles on WordPress.

Moderator: Is there any type of site that you wouldn’t recommend using WordPress, for example a transactional site or a data heavy site?

Peter: I don’t think I can recommend that you don’t. What we’re seeing how WordPress works at every level. Some of the stuff that Dan was talking about with heavy data table asks those kind of things,there might be integration that would make sense to explore.

But, we’ve done surveys of our user base and there’s a huge number of people that are running e-commerce and running full CMS and kind of doing full-fixture blogging sites and increasingly now using WordPress as a framework. I don’t think this is going to happen in government tomorrow, but it could be something down the road. And certainly, like the Washington Post is using it, using either the publishing piece of WordPress in the backend and a front-end solution, or vice versa and they’re using the front end of the solution and importing through a different type of back end. It just takes a lot of creativity and some developer lifting.

Dan: Just to add to that. I would frame the question just a little bit differently and say that for almost any type of site you want to build, the great thing about the web is that someone’s already built something like it already, and so there’s probably a tool that’s really great at it.

And so it’s hard for me, I mean at the end of the day it’s all code. It’s hard for me to think of a kind of site that you just absolutely couldn’t build with WordPress, especially it you extend it with the right technologies.

You should really kind of understand the kind of offering you want to build whether you’re building something very editorial, or something that’s focused on serving data and APIs in like a really high-volume scalable way. You know, there are technologies that are greater and better meant for it and that’s where I’d start.

It’s also worth understanding that the technology is really just one element. It’s really important to understand how the technology plus what kind of resources you have. If you have, you know, WordPress plus a bunch of amazing php developers, that might be a great choice to build a really kind of data-heavy, interaction-rich site. If you have WordPress, but you know, no developer help and you want to build something complex like that then it’s not a good choice.

A lot of platform choice hinges in parallel with the question of what kind of team you have to work on it.

Moderator: Okay, thank you, that’s actually all the questions we have and we’re just about at noon, so thank you both to Peter and Dan for taking the time, and thanks to everyone for listening. As a reminder, we’ll be sending a survey evaluation along with several resources and Peter’s contact information.

So thanks again everyone and have a great afternoon.

 

If you’re looking for information about government sites using WordPress, check out our spotlight on Building Government Websites with WordPress CMS or get in touch directly with the WordPress.com VIP team.

Thought Catalog on Building a Massive Open Contributor Network – Big Media & Enterprise Meetup NYC

James Ellis, Jameson Proctor and Matthew Spencer from Athletics  presented “Thought Catalog on VIP: Building a Massive Open Contributor Network” at the recent Big Media and Enterprise Meetup in New York City. Their presentation included their author permalink plugin that is now available on GitHub.

See the presentations from previous Big Media & Enterprise WordPress Meetups. For Big Media & Enterprise WordPress Meetup groups in other cities, see the full list on VIP Events and join your local group. We have upcoming developer and superuser training near you.

Want more information about WordPress services for media or enterprise sites? Get in touch.

Big Media & Enterprise Flashtalks with Captions on WordPress.tv

I’d like to introduce Andrea Zoellner, a WordPress.com VIP Communications intern who has been working diligently over the past two months to do some great things with WordPress.com VIP’s communication! Among other projects, she’s spearheaded transcribing and getting the Big Media & Enterprise Meetup videos and transcripts available to the public as soon as possible. We hope you’ll give her a big welcome, and we can’t wait to share what else she’s been working on! —Sara Rosso. 

We’ve been posting videos of presentations from the Big Media & Enterprise meetups over the past few months, and we believe those presentations are one of the biggest resources for the WordPress community at large with regards to understanding how WordPress is being used for innovative and highly-scaled projects.

With the goal of helping the community in mind, we submitted the videos to WordPress.tv so the entire global community could discover and share them as needed. We also painstakingly added English subtitles and a full transcript to these videos to make it easier to follow along, increase accessibility, and make them translation-ready.

These videos are an opportunity to hear about interesting features and stories from some of the most sophisticated WordPress installs on the web. By recording the meetup presentations and making them available to the wider WordPress community, we hope more people will benefit from the content.

Check out some of our recent presentations which we transcribed and published on this site:

Want to make more WordPress.tv videos accessible? You can help the WordPress.tv community bring meetup talks to an even broader audience by contributing subtitles to other videos. Find out more.

One Theme, One Multisite, 30+ Unique Websites – Now With Full Transcript

Simon Dickson and Simon WheatleyCode for the People, presented “One Theme, One Multisite, 30+ Unique Websites” at the recent Big Media & Enterprise Meetup in New York City. We’ve shared this post previously, but we’re publishing it again now with full transcript below.

 

Okay, so I’m Simon Wheatley, my partner Simon Dickson is just over there and we’re from a company called Code For The People.

We’re one of the VIP partners and I want to talk to you today about a client who came to us, similar I guess to the Oomph guys,the Interactive One guys, just been talking about one thing, but dealing with many websites initially 30.

This is for a magazine publisher in the UK, so they wanted to move 30 of their titles initially on to this platform but they wanted one standardized theme, one standardized set of functionalities that they could use.

So our solution for them is based in a couple things that I’m going to talk about tonight one is the WordPress theme customizer and one is the way we’re handling layouts using widgets and widget areas so these solutions are things you can apply in other organization. You can have your WordPress themed cake made by my partner’s wife and you can eat it at the same time.

So you get in this way, using this customization but based on the standardized theme, you get to reduce maintenance and at the same time keep the editorial teams happy.

So I’m going to talk through three of the areas where we allow editorial control so obviously there’s colours, I’m going to talk about typography and I’m going to talk about layout.

So the first element, colour, we started off with the idea that we would have the user pick half a dozen colours and we would then do colour calculations based around on let’s find some complimentary colours let’s find some lights and dark equivalents and then we’ll be able to work out how of those six colours, we can deal with the header and the footer and the body post but that actually gradually became unwieldy.

So you get in this way, using this customization but based on the standardized theme, you get to reduce maintenance and at the same time keep the editorial teams happy.

We found ourselves adding more and more colour options to avoid a clash of dark colours appearing on dark colours or red appearing on green, that kind of thing and the solution that we arrived at eventually was that we split it into two colour palettes, so there are two colour palettes which we call palette A and palette B and then we split the page into three areas. We’ve got the header area which can have one palette assigned the body of the page which can have another palette separately applied to it and then obviously the footer which can have a completely different palette.

So there are three palettes there, with about 12 different areas and we’re just using the standard WordPress theme customizer to allow you to pick the colour for that we’re still doing a little bit of colour calculation, lightening and darkening and so on but essentially it’s the two palettes applied to different areas of the page. We don’t take the standard approach that some themes take of just injecting a whole bunch of CSS into the head. Instead, we’re using LESS with CSS Preprocessor.

Probably now looking at the fact that core have adopted SASS, we could be using SASS but at the end of the day it’s all CSS Preprocessing. It all really does the same thing, it’s taking variables from the customizer and injecting them into CSS and using that to build the final styles for the website.

It’s simpler and cleaner than shoving a load of overrides in your head. So that’s colours, let’s talk about typography. Obviously there’s a number of font services out there and we’re going to want to give 30 editorial teams a good choice of fonts for their websites.

So we’re using the Google Fonts API, there’s a wide wide variety of fonts there and we’ve built a custom control for the customizer so can pick say the open sans fonts and because we’re dealing with the API. We know that there are these variants and weights associated with that and then we can be applying a text transform so that you’ve got fully uppercased for the navigation, but you’re just capitalizing for the headers or whatever.

That’s the one customizer control, which has got three sub-controls within it we looked around and found a couple of those on the internet in the .org repository but they all seemed to be making a bit of a meal of it and we ended up making something that turned out simpler but works quite nicely.

It’s simpler and cleaner than shoving a load of overrides in your head.

What you’ll see we haven’t got there is a font size for each individual element. We’re not setting a font size for the heading and then font-size for the subheading. Instead, we’re setting a base font size and then we’re using multipliers up from that. So maybe 16 pixels or something and then the heading is 1.5x that and the meta is 1x that or whatever.

So let’s talk about layout. We started out with layout with some very grandiose ideas that you might recognize from other themes and options that you’ve got out there. We were going to allow the user to draw areas on the screen and we we’re going to then use those as widget areas and drop stuff into those and then we we’re going to magically work out how we calculated the break points so that you could you know have tablet portrait, tablet landscape.

Eventually we took a step back from that and realized we could accomplish pretty much the same thing but in a much much simpler way.

Eventually we took a step back from that and realized we could accomplish pretty much the same thing but in a much much simpler way. So if we look at the primary content area on the left there, we’ve got a grid of widget areas so we’ve got a widget area at the top spanning then we’ve got the two-column side by side and then we repeat the same again. But of course with the widget area in WordPress you don’t need to put widgets in it.

So if you wanted to have just a single column of news in the primary content area then you just put widgets in the double span that comes second in there. Or, if you want a two-column layout, then you can just use the top two. Every so often in the year, when you’ve got a promotional item, you can be putting that in your double span above those to columns, so it gives it a lot of flexibility.

Because it’s a known quantity, it means that we can scale down to the various breakpoints and we know exactly what we’re doing and we’ve got a really nice responsive website and that comes out really really well when you start actually putting content in it this website, the fields, they started building that yesterday at 11 o’clock in the morning and by 3 o’clock in the afternoon, they had a site, fully migrated, fully customized with all the old content in it from the old custom content management system and up and running, so it comes up through the breakpoints.

Nice shotgun advert there for the shooting season coming up.

And then the desktop, full desktop width…so let’s, just taking a look at this page, we’ve got one widget that’s controlling a lot of this stuff. So if you look at the news sequence of posts and the food and drink sequence of posts, they’re using the same widget, and that’s something that we call the post query widget which is essentially a wp query builder for those you who know what I mean by that.

It’s putting together a series of parameters by which you’re going to reach into the database, grab the post that you want and get to display them on the page so you can choose the post type that you want to display in the particular widget that you’re editing at the moment. You can filter it down by the taxonomies and then you can go to actually start displaying that.

We do that by breaking the sequence of posts up into sections, so section one here has just got one post in it, it’s a list with a large image. Section two, you’ve got two posts, smaller images, and we’ll show the author and we’ll show the date there. Then section three is just a text bulleted list without any additional detail in there.

What that comes up as is something like that so it gives you really quite a flexible display of how you’re going to pull the posts in and then how you’re going to actually show them on the screen and you could have all large images or all bullet points, pretty much anything you want

We don’t limit the number of sections there so another thing I wanted to mention was category archives so again, we’ve got a customizer control in there so select your category and then choose similar again to the way that we’re dealing with the query widget so similar, we look at the style that you want that in, maybe this category you’ve got some really nice images, maybe the review images you’ve got are great and you want to highlight that

So you’ve got the ability to customize the display on the category there, so I’ve whistle stopped through this we talked a little bit about colours, so we’re using the colour API a little bit of calculation, we’re using LESS in CSS Preprocessing there talked about typography, so we’ve used the Google Fonts API to allow you to choose a font we know from the Google Fonts API, what the variants are, so we can pick that and we can give you a transform, we’ve got the base font size we talked about layout, we talked about the post query widget and about the custom layouts for categories so has anybody got any questions?

Q: Are you guys supporting live previewing in addition to the standard customizer stuff?

A: Yeah, absolutely, so all of this stuff, I mean if you’re not familiar with the customizer, one of the great things about it is nothing is live until you click the save and publish so all of this customization is happening just for you personally so even with the LESS Preprocessing, that’s being piped off into a separate stylesheet which is only being served to the editor that’s actually doing the customization at the moment

Q: ( […] )

A: Yeah, we’re working with posts, obviously the built in post type which they’re using for articles, we’ve got a custom post type for events and for reviews as well so the post query widget that I showed you, you can say I want to see just reviews here or just events here and it will allow you to display those

Q: ([…])

A: Some of the titles that we’re dealing with are relatively low staffed So I don’t think that kind of title would be necessarily looking at clicks we have got an evolution of the post query widget which looks at Google Analytics and uses the Google Analytics API to evaluate what’s popular in a particular category so you can use that as the sort mechanism, but that’s not something that’s live on the site at the moment

Q: ([…])

A: Yeah, so the widget areas that are there for the, where are we, let’s skip back through yeah the widget areas that are here are exactly the same widget areas, they’re just, they cascade through with the different break points and we move them around so this is the full desktop width but if you can quickly scan you can see that the same widget areas are just linearizing basically as you move down through the sizes so it’s exactly the same stuff ([…]) absolutely yeah responsive break points any more for any more

Q: ([…])

A: At the moment, pre-3.9 the disadvantage is anything you do to a widget is live on the site immediately, post 3.9 widgets move into the customizer so we’re able then to choose the widget layout and mess around in the same way exactly the same was as I said for the rest of the customizer, you can change your colours, change your fonts it’s not live until you click save and publish so 3.9 is going to herald a grand new dawn in terms of that being able to get right before it’s live

Q: ([…])

A: The brief for the widgets was that it wasn’t so much of a manual curation process, so if we needed to manually curate this particular post into position in this particular area of the homepage

I guess you could get around that by hacking with tags, but it wasn’t a core part of the brief that we were able to do that, so using something like zoninator where you can precisely choose which post to go and in which order they appear in wasn’t a requirement we could develop a different widget that did something like that I think we would probably still stick with widgets we’re also looking at doing some work to customize

so you can take the homepage layout and then for a particular purpose maybe for a sponsorship section have all of the sidebars completely custom for that but hidden from normal view so It’s only when you’re editing that page that you go in and those side bars are only live when you’re editing that page, that set of sidebars so you don’t end up with this situation wherein the WordPress admin area, the widget section you’re looking at all the sidebars and there’s like 300 sidebars which one am I adding the widgets in and which one am I not we’re able to actually filter which sidebars are being shown for a particular purpose

Q: ([…])

A: Yeah exactly that principle yeah.

Q: ([…])

A: Yeah, so like I say, some of these are fairly low staffed publications so the key for them is probably that they’ll set something up and then they won’t touch it for a little while we’re using a plugin which is available on the .org repository called the customizer settings revisions which allows you to save what you’ve created so you might go like “okay, this is the Christmas layout” with all the pretty snowflakes and the lovely snowy red design and then you can pop back to that when Christmas comes around again or when Easter comes around or whatever you want to do thematically so we’re using that plugin for that purpose

Q: ([…])

A: So the ads are outside of the widget areas, they’re placed at various points in the page that we know how to deal with for again, for the responsive break points are we concerned about the responsive kind of nature of it and so on, yeah so we have, we haven’t got the ability to do the thing that really you only do to show your boss that the site’s responsive which is you know, move the site edges in and out and change the width of the page, the adverts won’t change at that point because they only change on page load, it will look at the width and then ascertain what ads you need and then load them at that point does that answer the question?

Cool. Thank you.

 

See the presentations from previous Big Media & Enterprise WordPress Meetups. For Big Media & Enterprise WordPress Meetup groups in other cities, see the full list on VIP Events and join your local group. 

Want more information about WordPress services for media or enterprise sites? Get in touch.

Building Quartz – Now With Full Transcript

Josh Kadis is the web applications technologist at Quartz. At our August Big Media Meetup, he gave a short “flash talk” on building qz.com on WordPress, which we’ve shared here and republished now with the full transcript below. Quartz just celebrated its one-year anniversary, and you can learn more about it by reading our case study here.

See Josh’s slides here.

 

My name is Josh Kadis, I work for Quartz, which is a business and economics site from Atlantic Media, which is the publisher of The Atlantic. We launched in September last year, and our most recent numbers for July were about 5 million uniques (views). My role at Quartz is I do the bulk of the WordPress work and then I’ve also been heavily involved in building the Backbone application that runs the front-end of the site.

If you haven’t seen Quartz, it looks like this. It’s a responsive web app, WordPress backend, publishes on JSON API, that gets picked up by the backbone front-end and the bar across the top under the word Quartz – that expands and that’s how you navigate between different sections and within a section you can navigate by scrolling up and down in the column on the left which we call the queue, or in the “item well”, which is the main content area on the right.

So the basic architecture is that Automattic and the VIP team host our WordPress installation, the Backbone files and our CSS and some other Javascript kind of stuff are hosted on the same CDN that’s used by the rest of Atlantic Media, which is like theatlantic.com, theatlanticwire.com and other non-WordPress sites.

WordPress publishes the JSON API, and we get all the backend post authoring and media and we have some custom backend stuff, like a post type that allows us to publish the newsletter through the MailChimp API from within WordPress.

We have a self-hosted system for reader accounts, which is what you would use for the commenting feature that we recently rolled out which is more for annotating individual paragraphs within a post, and then managing your subscription to the newsletter The Daily Brief and that kind of stuff, so that’s also WordPress.

We’ve actually found that the comments that come back are less awful because people get to the specifics of what they want to say about this specific paragraph instead of a general “you suck”. That’s kind of nice.

We have this division of labour between WordPress and backbone where WordPress handles what you would expect: generating the basic HTML markup which kind of gives the page the basic structure and is useful for search engines. WordPress publishes the JSON API, and we get all the backend post authoring and media and we have some custom backend stuff, like a post type that allows us to publish the newsletter through the MailChimp API from within WordPress.

The order of the posts you see on the homepage is not initially chronological, it’s manually ordered by the editorial staff, that’s the ‘Top’ post. So there’s a plugin that allows them to do that with a drag and drop interface from among the recent posts. Backbone also handles what you’d expect on the client side: fetching data from the API, deciding where and when to render it on the page, reflowing based on the device and on the screen size. We’re doing some offline reading with local storage and all of the annotation’s functionality is contained within the Backbone app and the entire thing can be turned on and off without even touching WordPress.

The URL and getting Backbone and WordPress to interpret the URL in the same way is really where the two things come together. The whole site relies on that or else the front-end and back-end are out of sync.

So we have these two things and where do they really intersect? It’s here: The URL and getting Backbone and WordPress to interpret the URL in the same way is really where the two things come together. The whole site relies on that or else the front-end and back-end are out of sync. So just to kind of quickly walk through it, if you haven’t written a Backbone app before, the router is the foundation of it, it essentially determines how the URL is parsed and then triggers a series of events that come one after another and ultimately result in stuff showing up on the page.

Good URL design is really a key to what we’re doing.

To work, the router reads the permalinks, and Backbone has some kind of build in syntax for how you read a permalink and decide what’s a variable within that and what’s a key. The permalinks come back to WordPress to run off the rewrite rules, and the rewrite rules run Quartz.

Good URL design is really a key to what we’re doing. So something like this: http://qz.com/107970 is the URL of the most viewed post of the history of Atlantic Media, it’s about bees. This is something that doesn’t have to run through a URL shortener, doesn’t get redirected, both Backbone and WordPress will understand this URL and parse out that single ID in the exact same way. Here is a little bit of code from the router, grossly over simplified.

Basically the router initializes, you give it this regex, it looks for these core sections: ‘Top’ – which is, I explained, is the manually ordered, “here’s what’s important right now” segment of posts. ‘Most recent’ is the latest one, ‘Popular’ we kind of calculated near real time using Chartbeat, ‘About’ is some static pages.

When the router recognizes one of these keywords from the regex and the URL, it triggers the core function which passes the particular one to this event which then gets triggered and a whole bunch of other stuff happens that results in a bunch of posts as you scroll through.

When you look at the WordPress theme, if you see rewrite rules, you would kind of recognize the regular expression: Top, Latest, Popular, About, and for both the front-end query, which is this first set of rewrite rules and then the API they both resolve to pass these two parameters, these two query variables to WordPress. API = true or false and then request = one of these things in this array.

For handling those two variables, we add_rewrite_tag request, we hook into query_vars and add API and then WordPress knows to look for those two things so that when the parse_request action comes around, we are able to, and in my oversimplification, I left out an if statement here, then we can fire up this qz API class and kind of pre-empt the main WordPress loops and that’s how we get JSON back without really needing to run through anything else that WordPress would do.

So this kind of enables us to go from a regular URL with a parameter like JSON tacked onto the end which is how in a lot of situations if you were building a JSON API on top of WordPress, you might do something like this and get back basically the same data structure that’s in the WordPress post object.

For us, we haven’t done that for a couple of reasons. We’ve gone with a custom API for clarity’s sake, being able to put all our endpoints inside API and then on the server side, we want to do all our processing of the meta data before we return it through JSON or else all that work needs to be done and that slows things down.

So for example, we’re able to return the URL to multiple sizes of the same image which we’ll ultimately be able to serve differently using this new SRC set attribute for different screen resolutions, stuff like that that is not necessarily apparent if you’re just reading the meta data straight out of the database.

So the Backbone side touches WordPress in a couple of other places. One is we need a way to keep track of version numbers, because they really are so separate. When we load the current Backbone version, it’s a different actual number than the WordPress version, so WordPress needs to know what’s what and keep one step ahead of the VIP team, really, because we put in a deploy to them, and we’re not sure when it’s going to come back so we want to know that as soon as it does, we’re ready and we’ll load the correct version of the application.

We’re also sort of separate from WordPress but still in Automattic, we’re using an Akismet API for kind of like profanity and spam filtering when annotations come in.

So in a second I’ll show you a quick shot of a plugin that enables us to do that. We’re also sort of separate from WordPress but still in Automattic, we’re using an Akismet API for kind of like profanity and spam filtering when annotations come in. Previews get pretty complicated in fact, with the Backbone app because it doesn’t know if the person is logged in to WordPress or not, it doesn’t know what permissions they have, so we need to sort of render some special Javascript in the markup that comes back initially from WordPress in order for Backbone to pick up that preview.

And then finally, there’s something that we’re working on that David in the third row in the red shirt is going to be working on soon, which is kind of figuring out how to keep the WordPress post templates and the underscore templates that Backbone uses, keep those in sync. It’s kind of hard right now, and ultimately doing a better job of that will allow us to load more of the application initially from WordPress, instead of having to process it within the browser in the Backbone app and then put it on the page.

So, this is a quick look at the plugin that manages the version number, essentially it allows you to stay on this auto-pilot mode that kicks whichever version is higher between the constant that’s set in the theme that can get committed to VIP or a setting that’s saved in the options table that you can set here so if for example you have a new version in the Javascript application that’s not making any adjustments to WordPress, we can just update the setting here in the plugin as soon as we put it on the CDN and we’re ready to push it.

But if we have stuff that’s sort of related to some changes in the WordPress theme and some stuff in the Backbone app, we put the Backbone app up first change the constant in the WordPress theme to sort of point to that new version of the Backbone application and as long as we’re sort of incrementing the number, the plug in will kick the higher number as soon as the new code with the constant is live on VIP.

This is just a quick look at annotations. You should all check it out, it’s really really nice. The responsive aspects of it are really cool and it’s just an interesting way of diving into the content. We’ve actually found that the comments that come back are less awful because people get to the specifics of what they want to say about this specific paragraph instead of a general “you suck”. That’s kind of nice.

TechCrunch and Non-Blocking WordPress – Now With Full Transcript

Alex Khadiwala and Nico Vincent from TechCrunch presented on “Non-Blocking WordPress” at the recent Big Media & Enterprise Meetup in San Francisco, California. We’ve shared this presentation before, but now we’re publishing it again now with full transcript below.Download the slides here.

Nico: Today, we’re going to talk about non-blocking WordPress. By non-blocking, we’re meaning asynchronous tasks. First of all, who is a developer in the audience here? Okay, so more than half, awesome. So we’re going to start by talking about non-technical stuff and then we’re going to go a little deeper, under the hood.

Basically the team right now is me and David Lake, as a software engineer and a project manager. Alex here was former development lead for more than a year. I want to give props also to 10up which is here tonight and John Bloch and Eric Mann who were really helpful in the redesign we did in the past year.

So the whole point of this presentation is to talk about having a fast website. Basically when you have a fast website, the user engagement is much better. I’ve heard that under 3 second websites, 40 percent of the people drop and only 40 percent of them will come back on your site.

The more they stay, the more pages they see, which is good for ad revenue and on a business point. Also, like Google and other search engines, like Google or Hummingbird penalizes when the website takes longer to load.

Also it’s good for the bounce rate and I know we’re hosting on WordPress VIP but it’s better for your hardware, when you have a really performant website.

I’m going to let Alex talk about our old TechCrunch to our new TechCrunch.

Alex: Yes, so our old site was really slow, it was about 17.4 seconds for a single page load. We’re part of the AOL network and from all the sites from AOL, we were the second slowest, pretty embarrassing against the peers.

Also, like Google and other search engines, like Google or Hummingbird penalizes when the website takes longer to load.

If you guys recall the old site, for the new site, after we finished the redesign, this is hearsay, but what we were told is that we were one of the fastest sites on VIP. I think Matt Mullenweg was kind of excited about that too which makes us excited.

Blocking is: a process that is blocked is waiting for some event such as a resource becoming available or the completion of an operation.

This little graph at the bottom, you can see, first page load of DOM complete, when you can start interacting with the page is about 2.9 seconds and after the first load, and second load about 1.9 seconds and fully loaded it’s 4.2 on the first load and about 2.3 seconds on the repeat, on the second load.

Basically when everything gets cached and such, definitely very exciting, pretty fast. So it’s good that there’s all these non-technical presentations so we can balance it out with a little more technical presentation.

We’re going to talk about blocking, basically, this is kind of a general definition of what blocking is: a process that is blocked is waiting for some event such as a resource becoming available or the completion of an operation.

The general idea is that you have a page request and it has to do a bunch of things before it can render the HTML and send it back to the user’s browser. So by architecting the page – one of the big things was to make our site extremely performant for all the reasons that Nico had listed off a moment ago. One of the big things that we did was try to identify anything that was blocking and push it off to an asynchronous task.

Some of the ways that you generally do it with other non-WordPress stacks are message queues, using something like Rabbit MQ or Amazon SQS to kind of send a list of tasks and then using workers, or in past I’ve used Gearman as a worker for processing things in a queue. Sidekick and Resque are big popular ones with rails apps.

Unfortunately these options are unavailable on WordPress but with a lot of help from 10up, we built out something that is referred to as a wp-Async-Task. What this is is an abstract class that we extend for different tasks that we wanted to make asynchronous.

So the nice thing is essentially it’s kind of starting a whole new thread to kind of do this work that you need done asynchronously.

So basically, it performs. When you make a request for something, if we kick off a second request back to the same site, which is a non-blocking HP request and it basically sends some information to the server and says do this task.

So the nice thing is essentially it’s kind of starting a whole new thread to kind of do this work that you need done asynchronously. A couple of examples of what we did on our site that you can see are CrunchBase.

We have, on most of our articles we have CrunchBase cards and you can kind of see – here Facebook and Snapchat as an example.This information all comes from the CrunchBase API. So imagine that one circumstance you’re loading the page, you have to get this information from CrunchBase.

Imagine that we have to go to CrunchBase, wait like a second or even half a second to get that information, for each of those different companies and then pull the information back and basically have it available then to render the page. It would be painful for the end user.

So what we do actually is we kick off an, if the information is not available, we kick off an async task, it goes and gets the information, caches it in our site, we basically store it in a taxonomy – a custom taxonomy for CrunchBase.

One of the big things that we did was try to identify anything that was blocking and push it off to an asynchronous task.

Then the next time that particular CrunchBase information is requested, it will be available to the page.So we then load nothing for the first request if it’s not available, then the next time the request comes through, it’ll be available for that page.

Another example is for recirculation. On the left rail of our site, we have some for example, we have tags and categories basically for that particular post and we pull in articles that are related just for recirculation purposes. Pretty much the same exact thing as a CrunchBase.

One nice thing that we do here as well is that when the page finishes, if the information is not available it does not render on the page. Instead it sets up, it just kind of writes a Javascript callback so that when that page finishes loading, that it’ll call back and try to get the information.

Basically, as far as images, we were just putting a 1×1 image on a CEN in the SRC attribute and then once the DOM was done loading, we were just using another attribute that we call data-srce and we were replacing the image source so that was super fast, seamless.

Again, it waits ’til the page is completely done loading, before it makes that call back, just for the best user experience. That’s it for my part, I’m going to pass it back to Nico to talk about some other things.

Nico: Alright, I’m going to talk about something we call the Lazy Loader. Basically on our front page and many of our different pages. We’re loading more than 100 assets, and it was a big part of us having a 17 second loading time.

We have different blocking API’s and the social buttons. Let’s say for a blog when you’re displaying 30 articles, you have to load a like button, a linkedIn button, a Twitter Button 30 times and these API’s are really slow and sometimes it’s a real hassle to finish the DOM to load with that.

Basically, as far as images, we were just putting a 1×1 image on a CEN in the SRC attribute and then once the DOM was done loading, we were just using another attribute that we call data-srce and we were replacing the image source so that was super fast, seamless.

And then like Alex was talking about, the tag accordion – basically all the accordion was closed so we were just loading the content as the page was finishing loading.

So once again, no one could see it and it was much better in terms of page load.

Also, our social buttons, they’re just like little images and as soon as you hover it, that would just trigger the loading, so these are examples that really really cut down our page load down from like more than 10 or 15 seconds.

Another example is caching, so here, basically what we’re doing, we’re having a refresh key that’s usually like 10 minutes and then when the refresh key is still okay and the data is still good we just returning the data and serving it. If it’s not the case, we only have one person that can trigger the refresh and then that will set the transient.

Another example, it’s a plugin actually, so you guys can check it out if you’re interested. It’s from another 10up person that used to work with us.It’s called the Live Cache.

So where you see the two arrows, it’s a little module on the homepage, when the stream is on and we wanted to be able to change the information there so the person wouldn’t have to refresh the page.

We tricked a little bit with a URL and a timestamp, so basically the browser will trigger a call to our backend every ten seconds based on a different timestamp and we will just get the information back if someone in the backend had refreshed it before.

I will let Alex here conclude on this.

Alex: So yeah basically, the point of our presentation was just to – it’s something you kind of have to do from the beginning and especially if you’re doing a redesign.

Just general idea, is you want to architect your site to asynchronously handle any heavy task to maximize your task performance.

Yeah,using a pattern like wp Async Task or things like the Live Cache plugin or just Javascript Lazy Loading or the 1×1 pixel source when you’re loading the page will definitely help improve the page performance.

One other note we’re told to tell you if we’re hiring, so we are hiring and if you are looking or know somebody that is looking in the Bay area, would love if you guys could email them now at dev@techcrunch as I’m no longer there.

Thank you guys so much and thank you so much to Automattic for having us present here.

Questions:

Q: How do you factor speed with features, it’s a balance, so how do you deal with those decisions? Is it just the feature set wins and you just figure out how to do it?

A: Pretty much. So a lot of our features are driven by editorial, and editorial typically is very opinionated and had a lot of pull. I’m sure everyone has dealt with that for any media site.

So I think most of the time, if it’s not them coming to us, it’s them going to the higher ups and talking them into basically adding a certain feature and then us kind of figuring out how to architect it.

It gives some interesting challenges, but it’s been great, it’s been fun. I mean, I think Live Cache was a good example with that.

Like one of the big things was working against batcache, because we’re on VIP and having batcache, we have to kind of come up with a way that we can make page requests back and get up to date information.

But without taxing VIP too heavily and getting passcode review on VIP.

Q: Just a follow up, it seems like you’ve built tools to help you quickly integrate speed into everything you build, rather than having to tackle it individually for each piece, is that correct?

A: For sure, just kind of abstracting as much as we can, to make it reusable and I will give props to 10up again for a lot of that.

Nico and I, like I started about a year and a half ago, Nico’s been almost 2 years now and we both came from non-WordPress backgrounds.

We started probably a few months into our tenure at TechCrunch doing the redesign, so it was a lot of stuff we had to learn. It’s kind of a different world doing WordPress development.

Participant:Can you go back on a slide? Two slides, one more.
Alex: The one on Live Cache?
Participant: Yeah, thanks
Alex: Cool.

Q: Yeah, just curious what your best practices are around caching, and content like that, what’s your TTLs and whether you’ve found any optimizations around caching that you’d like to share?

A: That’s a good question. So that’s a good question because we had issues with that plugin. It didn’t work for like two live events because first of all.

We were logged in and VIP has a different behaviour as far as refresh and cache for logged in users. When you’re just someone who’s chilling on the website, we we’re getting the headers from that cache.

Sometimes, so I don’t remember if it’s like too much or not enough, but sometimes we were having the right data from the back end, and then ten seconds later, the old data because of issues with cache timestamps.

Alex: Do you mind if I?
Nico: You want to chime in?
Alex: Yeah I’ll chime in for this one.

Alex: We were having an issue with Live Cache, you might be speaking of other assets…

Q: Yeah, I’d just like to hear general, just caching in general, what best practices you have for that like new content versus page speed.

A: Yeah, everything is basically, we said no headers from our side. Everything is kind of managed from VIP, all of our information, all of our content is through their CDN and through their hosting.

They kind of take care of that for all our static assets and such as far as the issue that Nico was just talking about.

One of the big issues with Live Cache is that basically you have to make the request back to the server with the right timestamp to make sure you’re getting the right text.

So for example basically we have these presentations that disrupt and they’re like 10 minutes long, which we’ve gone over a little bit but we’ll be quick.

When they switch presentations, somebody goes into the backend, in the widget and switches out the text. But, you have to synchronize the clock with the end user to make sure that they’re using the right, the same clock as you.

So our solution was to make that first request live_cache_check/1/. Fortunately the header on the batcache, the response is coming from batcache. It does have the proper timestamp so we use that to synchronize the clock and then accordingly all subsequent requests, which are every ten seconds will be based on that, based on the synchronization.

Q: So assuming no one messes with the clock between the first request and after that?

A: I guess, it’s valid, I mean just to speculate, I guess it’s OS specific. So it’s kind of relying on the timer within the browser and within the OS to kind of, as to the interval that’s been set.

Participant: makes sense, cool.

Q: Is the wp Async plugin, is that available right now?

A: Unfortunately not, we have it, we were looking, we were talking about like open sourcing that and I guess we just have to get it cleared by a few different people but I think it would be useful. We think it would be something useful to open source.

Participant: Sounds like it.

Alex: Yeah yeah, for sure. Cool, thank you guys so much.

Nico: Thanks.

See the presentations from previous Big Media & Enterprise WordPress Meetups. For Big Media & Enterprise WordPress Meetup groups in other cities, see the full list on VIP Events and join your local group. 

Andrew Nacin on How WordPress Evolves Without Breaking Everything – Now With Full Transcript

Andrew Nacin is one of the lead developers of WordPress. At the August 2013 Big Media & Enterprise Meetup, he gave a talk on how WordPress evolves while maintaining backwards compatibility — which we shared previously and we’re publishing it again now with the full transcript below. 

My name is Andrew Nacin, I’m a lead developer at WordPress. I live in Washington DC. I’m talking about, really quickly, how WordPress evolves without breaking absolutely everything. I’m going to give two case studies.

First, some general considerations and what I’m talking about for this is three in particular:

  • One, we don’t really rush to fix what isn’t broken. There are a lot of other platforms out there that might rewrite a lot of their API’s pretty much every version, every three years. Just to name a few, like Drupal. We’re not trying to do that; we are trying to evolve at maybe a slower pace. Our slower pace might still be over 3 years; it’s just over six or seven releases.
  • We’re also trying to really make it worth it. If we are going to rewrite something, we’re going to go all out. And that’s actually one of the case studies here.
  • And then the third one is backwards compatibility. As you probably know, we’re presently backwards compatible, or 99% backwards compatible from version to version. Great for users, great for the ecosystem, it’s actually not that great for us, but that’s okay, we accept that.No “breaking changes” means that users don’t really need to worry about this when they update it. At the same time, we have to absorb extra technical debt. So if you look at the new WordPress, you’ll find some things that you’re like “wow, that’s still there”? Yes because the plugin that worked five years ago that was perfect then, should still work now.  We don’t try and just deliberately break your code.

We’re also trying to really make it worth it. If we are going to rewrite something, we’re going to go all out.

First case study: WordPress 3.4 – Themes API

So the first case that I’m going to talk about is WP theme, which came in WordPress 3.4 so this is actually a bit of a comparison from 3.3 to 3.4. There were some really big problems with the existing software wp_get_themes(). It was actually terrible. It’s a function that was not an API, it was that bad. It had a huge memory footprint; we’re talking 10s of megabytes, every time you called it. Very slow, weak error handling, pretty much nothing was good about it. It couldn’t fit into a single cache bucket, that’s how big the data was. So if you tried saving it in the cache, and WordPress.com tried doing this, they had to chunk it into individual keys, and put it together when it was done. It really didn’t make any sense. You’re probably doing it wrong if you ever have to do this with your data. Getting page templates for one theme required loading everything.

WordPress.com, which had at the time, 170-something default themes and on top of that something like 600 VIP themes, which by the way aren’t used on almost all sites, they were loading 700 pieces of data looking up every single page template for whatever Duster’s page templates are. This really didn’t make any sense at all, was really slow, and that’s why they had to cache it into multiple cache buckets. It was also really painful, because it’s one giant multi-dimensional associative array. If you try adding a feature to this, all you’re doing is making it worse.

We also needed this for an absolute ton of things, some of these on here I didn’t even know existed. You can dig into this a little bit, like multiple theme roots, cross-root parent themes, things like that. You can actually nest themes inside directories, which is what WordPress.com does for some stuff. Really weird – we had to support all these things. And you can’t break anything. You have to be 100% backwards compatible.

So how do we do it? First is that we scrap the entire array, this giant mess of crap and try to do one object with WP_Theme. So you have a method like get: $theme ->get(‘Name’) or get (‘Description’), or get (‘Author’). And also getting a header for display, so we have a display method, which automatically translates it, which is a new feature in case you’re doing that kind of stuff and also dealing with HTML markup – that could each go into some of these pieces. And then a number of helpers that can mimic a lot of the regular functions that you’re already seeing so you’re very used to all the different pieces here. Dealing with page templates: “hey look now we can only fetch one theme’s page templates”.

So we were looking through this and the pages’ page, the list table, was 5-6 times slower to load than a post table just because we were loading the list of page templates for one theme, for quick edit, that you don’t even open unless you really need to. Really stupid, but that’s kind of sad right? And things like template files, which we were only really loading for the theme editor, which on WordPress.com is disabled, but they still had to on WordPress.com load this for every single theme. That’s 40% of all of its memory.

It’s not easy to build code that just works from version to version, and many of you might not even need to deal with this. At WordPress, we do. It makes your lives easier, so you can buy me a beer later.

Let’s use WordPress.com as an example, even though I don’t work there, because they’re obviously working on a pretty incredible scale, especially the number of themes they have.

So the next step that we did, step two, is a lot of magic. We have this problem where we have $theme passed into functions, passed into hooks. How are all of the old, all the existing plugins working with this going to be able to accept this data? So in PHP there’s a class called  ArrayObject, that implements a few interfaces, one of them is called ArrayAccess. What it enabled us to do is things like this, where $theme[‘Name’] we’re able to treat that like a function call and then we can wrap it in this case, with the get map: #theme->get(‘Name’). Sometimes, this array, for whatever reason, one of the functions, WordPress decided to convert to an object, so we had to handle that as well. Well, there are some magic methods in php including __get() and __isset().

So now, we’re able to take this giant, stupid array and convert it to actually, a really smart object. We’re doing this in WordPress as well with some other things, we’re also doing dumb objects like a standard class and converting those more specifically to proper objects like wp_post if you’ve been looking around. A lot of this is just for sanity reasons, not even for future reasons. So, function __get($property), we’re able to map exactly where we need to go. Caching is non-persistent by default, but it does exist, which is pretty cool. So, the problem is that if you had caching on persistent and you would maybe doing a deploy, if you’re not actually clearing that cache, well there’s a problem. You need to be able to do that. APC is buggy enough as it is when it comes to upcode caching, you don’t need to mess with it here as well. So it does support persistent caching if you know what you’re doing. So WordPress.com for example has this enabled. They wanted to be able to store in cache bucket, so they do. So if for some reason, you ever wanted to enable it, there is a filter:

add_filter(

‘wp_cache_themes_persistently’,

‘_return_true’ );

Overall, the class itself is somewhere around 2,000 lines long. The patch that landed, that had the bulk of this was somewhere around 14,000 lines long and we wrote it in about six days and it worked.

And you can turn it on and it will work. So if you’re dealing with a lot of themes, maybe not just one on a giant multi-site installed, this might be something for you. So you have this new API that deals with array( ‘allowed’ => true ) and array( ‘errors’ => true ) and all these these different pieces. array( ‘allowed’ => true ) being for multi-site which is again, something else that we were able to speed up quite a bit.

And then we also had to make sure it worked. So, on top of a lot of functional testing, this is a few years ago this stat (29 tests, 684 assertions), there are even more tests now. Existing tests had to demonstrate of course backwards compatibility, so those existing tests did not break when we did all of this. New tests ensured the WP_Theme returned what we expected and then we practiced TDD (test-driven development) specifically when we were dealing with any bugs that came in.

Overall, the class itself is somewhere around 2,000 lines long. The patch that landed, that had the bulk of this was somewhere around 14,000 lines long and we wrote it in about six days and it worked. Also doing profiling, you’re going to find bottlenecks in some cases where you had no idea you had them. So maybe we saw some pages that were slow and we didn’t really understand why, sometimes a post request is actually slow, you might not notice this because you might think “oh yeah, Chrome is just resolving the DNS, that always takes forever”.

Profiling is really important for these things. So, for example, this is a KCachegrind right here, we were able to take 28% in theme.php to 0.76% of the page load. Total time cost was reduced by a factor of almost 6 and then we’re also able to look at weird things like this.

For sanitize_titles_with_dashes, one particular thing, we were searching for a theme on the backend and for some reason it was taking 42% of the page load. We we’re like “what the heck is going on here?”. Turns out it was being run 3529 times and here’s the best thing: the function call shouldn’t have even been there. So we removed it and the entire page sped up like you wouldn’t believe. It actually went from 44% to basically nothing. So we were able to speed things up – we would never have found this because it’s just like “oh Chrome is being stupid, it’s not loading”. No, it was actually a really slow request.

 

Second case study: Taxonomy Meta and Post Relationships

You might have heard of these, you might be using them, you might be using post-to-post taxonomy meta plugins. Working on this, this is a roadmap that was posted to make.wordpress.org/core a few weeks ago, during WordCamp San Francisco actually, explaining all the different things that we’re working on to make this happen. Now, the problem if you’ve worked in depth with terms is that shared terms was just a bad idea, we shouldn’t have done it. It came in actually, and this is a really funny history, originally in 2.2, was removed and went into 2.3 with a new schema, based in part on Drupal’s schema at the time. So the one time we did copy them, we realized we made a bad mistake.

Term_id as you might be familiar with – let’s say the term_id is ‘apple’ and then that ‘apple’ term might be in multiple taxonomies. So you might have the ‘apple’ in the tag taxonomy, and ‘apple’, in the company taxonomy. The problem is when you, let’s say, rename the ‘apple’ to ‘applecomputer’, suddenly things begin to go wrong very quickly. Unfortunately shared terms have very limited practical benefit. It would be much better if they were separate. So we have these two tables: wp_term_taxonomy and wp_terms and these fields in them, and you can kind of see how these come together with term_tax_id being the primary key for one, and term_id being the primary key in the other table, things get related and we have a third table of relationships. The joins are a mess, slow things down, and are not really fun.

So we’re going to add a new table, like this and if you see, it’s the exact same fields as the term_tax_id table, except we’re going to add all the fields that were in the term_id table. So we’re going to drop one of these tables and move all of the fields into the other table. We’re going to reduce everything to one table. Now if you’ve ever written a direct query for this stuff, if you’ve ever dealt with this, “Oh crap, things are going to break” right? “I’m sorry, it was Nacin’s fault, blame him”, or whatever you want to do. We can actually fix this. In fact, we didn’t come up with just one way to fix this we came up with two.

The first one is that we’re just going to redefine what a table means in WordPress. So if you try and reference $wpdb->terms, it will simply think, “oh, you must mean the $wpdb->term_taxonomy table”. So we’re actually self-joining. So if you’re doing interjoined terms on “terms_t” on term taxonomy and you’re do all these different fields, it’s just going to join itself. And because these fields are a superset, it will work. You also can do something like this with a view. You can create a view in MySQL as of MySQL 5, which is the current version for WordPress. You’re able to do something as simple as this: we’re able to re-create our old table in place. So after we do all these crazy upgrades and everything else, we can make this kind of work. We tested this with WordPress, we dropped the table, we merged all of them, took a 20-line patch, without changing anything, all the direct queries and everything worked. So plugins that are trying to do anything special with terms, we can do this to the point where we’re really not going to break anything. Pretty cool.

We’re also doing this over the course quite a number of releases. So, we’re able to combine these term tables, let us have on ID, finally we have one real ID that represents what a term actually is that we can pass around. Term meta is finally within reach, maybe post-relationships isn’t far behind, because that might depend on term relationships and that becomes a whole other story. So we have this long-term road map, unfortunately this actually requires we integrate a half dozen different changes, each of which is dependant on the previous one, over at least 3, 4 or maybe 5 releases.

So, we’re not rushing this, we can’t rush this. We need to do it step by step, to make sure that we don’t break absolutely everything. Maybe we slow it down, speed it up depending on how things go. Ultimately backwards compatibility prevents a lot of challenges. It’s not easy to build code that just works from version to version, and many of you might not even need to deal with this. At WordPress, we do. Iit makes your lives easier, so you can buy me a beer later. And we continue to evolve at rapid speed, WordPress 3.7, if you don’t know about the plans, is being released in October, 3.8 which will be a little bit of a different release in December. And if you’d like to join us helping out, I would go to make.wordpress.org/core and check those things out. (For the latest WordPress version, go to www.wordpress.org)

 

Q&A

Q: For the major version changes, now that we’re speeding up the timeframe for releases, typically in the past it’s been every 6 months for a major release and it’s been documented that you go back and support the last major release version. How is that going to change now that we’re speeding up the major versions?

A: Don’t know yet. In this case we’ve always aimed for 4 months, and normally end up at 5 and it slips to 6 or 7 on occasion. Sometimes we’ve actually been really on target with those. So what we’re trying to do now is 3.7 is acting as a bit of a reset, I can talk a little about 3.7.

3.7 is a platform-focused release, we’re doing it in 2 months. It’s focused on a few different things, Scott was talking earlier about some of our developer tools stuff. We’re trying to improve a lot of our own processes, so whether it’s trying to make it easier to contribute, trying to make it so tickets don’t rot for a long period of time, or people aren’t getting feedback or whatever it is – that’s important. And then a lot of our developer tools as well.

So this is really cool: you might have seen this new develop repository on WordPress.org which replaces the old core.svn repository. This is pretty interesting because it pulls in all of our tests, all of our tools, our bill process now, everything is in one place and finally we’re trying to modernize here. We’ve been around for 10 years, we can start to do it at this point. And then we’re rebuilding a lot of our developer documentation. So if you go to developer.wordpress.org right now, you’ll get a “Coming Soon” message, but we’re working right now on fully automated code reference that is very smart and deals with documenting every hook, every function, all from inline documentation to what else it can need from code. (This feature is now live, check it out)

The actual focus of the release in part is security, stability, updates and fixing a lot of bugs. We’ve already closed around 300 tickets in the last 2-3 weeks and I expect that number to continue to drop successfully with each week. This won’t affect most of you, because you will be doing manual deployments anyway, but in 3.7, security minor release updates will happen automatically. They shouldn’t be nearly as painful as they are and we want to try and ship this to you – like 5 people just went “oh God, what are you doing?” – don’t worry, relax, you can turn it off and in most cases, this won’t affect you. If you have things like automatic updates turned off on your dashboard, then this obviously will not occur. Which you should, and if you don’t, and you’re trying to do deployment anyway, how one of your editors isn’t screwing it up by pushing a button, I’m really interested.

Any further questions on 3.7? We don’t know how yet we’ll work on that, but that said, because we’re going to start doing automatic updates for security releases, we’ll probably support security backup a few more versions as well. If only because we can be much more confidant shipping those and because our security vulnerabilities we’re dealing with now are really esoteric.

We’re talking about like safe HTTP requests and XML injection and things along those lines, we’re not really dealing with the run of the mill like XSS that we might have been dealing with 5-6 years ago. So, supporting further back, yes, that said, I don’t think we’ll always be doing too much with these cycles, I would like to settle between 3 and 4, but we really don’t know yet. 2,3,4, not sure. 3 releases a year would be great, 4 maybe, I don’t know.

Harvard Business Review and WordPress – Now With Full Transcript

Kevin Newman from Harvard Business Publishing, presented “Adapting WordPress’ role within a larger content strategy” at the recent Big Media & Enterprise Meetup in Boston. We’ve shared his presentation previously, and we’re publishing it again now with full transcript below. 

View the presentation slides here:

 

I can tell a story about where, what blogging means to HBR and what role WordPress plays. A little bit of history first. HBR is a storied print publication. It’s been around for 90+ years, one of the cornerstone publications in management science and practice.

It’s a great product and I love it but right around 2007, 2006, there was a desire to push the boundaries a little bit and get out of the ivory tower, see where our new audiences could be.

This is slightly before my time, I came on board around 2008, so as I started to experiment with different content forms, namely blogging. I ended up going with Moveable Type. Moveable Type, at the time, had a feature that easily allowed for multiple authors, static publishing of an asset which was attractive.

WordPress and Moveable Type way back when, were kind of neck and neck and it was really a coin toss whether or not we were going to go either way. We ended up going with Moveable Type and that’s where myself and a couple of other people were hired to help grow the business a little bit, to help it along.

Moveable Type was not literally, but just about on somebody’s desktop computer under their desk being posted in kind of a hacky way and they wanted to make it a more sustainable business.

We’re also seeing that readers are coming to the site and some readers are getting just as much value out of a blog post or what’s now a blog post, as they are in the print article.

The point of the digital business at the time was to develop the markets in advertising and subscription and e-commerce. At the time, they were seeing some success in e-commerce.

So at the time, Harvard Business Publishing was a catalogue site, but they felt like, the board felt and a number of people felt like we can serve readers as well. So we’re looking to create that new audience, meet that new audience without sacrificing the quality and carry it forward, or so the intention was.

We went to Moveable Type, everything was going great but then we started to hit up against a couple of constraints. Long story short, editorial really wanted to go with WordPress and it ended up working out really well in the technical sense as well.

The editors love it, the ad sales folks love it, it does a great job making sure that the tags that the editors are putting in make it all the way out there.

So we ended up transitioning to WordPress last year off of Moveable Type, working with Automattic VIP to get all of this, all of our, what would it be, 4-5 years of blogging, all the meta data, all the operatives, all the work that went into getting onto WordPress.

It went very very well all the expectations, actually exceeded all the expectations. The good news is that everybody absolutely loves it, absolutely loves it. The editors love it, the ad sales folks love it, it does a great job making sure that the tags that the editors are putting in make it all the way out there. There’s nothing in between.We want to make sure everything is accurate.

The other good news is that there’s a deep community there. There’s a lot of people that use it if we go to some sort of conference, either technical or editorial, odds are if we talk to someone about the process, they’re also using WordPress.

More good news is that there’s tons of developers, tons of plugins, if you don’t know how to get it done, or you’re just lazy, you can probably do a quick search and you’ll find a plugin that will get you a good way there. So it’s been a great decision across the board, now we’re heading in a new direction.

HBR.org is in the midst of a pretty big redesign. A lot of it’s visual, there’s some underlying plumbing that’s getting changed as well and we wanted to keep WordPress.

So one of the key strategic changes that I wanted to mention is that we’re moving towards, we’re coming from a model that works very well, where there’s pretty hard lines between print content and online content, stuff that is not in the magazine.

What we’re going to do is even that balance out a little bit, where an article, is really an article. Certainly there’s a difference between a print article and an online article but we’re also seeing that readers are coming to the site and some readers are getting just as much value out of a blog post or what’s now a blog post, as they are in the print article.

With this redesign, we’re going to kind of even the playing field a little bit and everything’s going to be presented to the user as helping them solve their problem.

Less of a division between what’s in the issue versus what can you find online exclusively. So it’s just going to be content: “how can we help you solve your management problems?” “How can we make you a better manager?”.

It doesn’t matter if it’s a blog, doesn’t matter, well it matters if it’s in the print magazine of course, subscription, it matters. But readers don’t see the difference that we do, we need to make sure that we’re solving their problems.

So we look across the site…Barack Obama organizing for America 2.0. That could be almost anything, it’s not necessarily related to an issue. WordPress is a big part of that.

As we move forward, we’re taking all the entire archive of HBR and the entire archive now of all the blog posts and we’re putting them all in WordPress. We’re going to have every single piece of readable content and actually multimedia as well, in WordPress and part of that is because of technical flexibility.

It’s under the theory of let’s let the best tool do their job, in other words, we feel like we’ve found a great tool and everybody’s happy.

My job, my team’s job is to make sure we’re never painted in a corner. We can do whatever we want next year if we want to change directions. WordPress is a fantastic tool for that.

The other reason we’re doing this is because editors love it. They absolutely love going to this tool, they use it all the time. I don’t have to deal with it. I don’t have to, we built so many tools for them, and you know some of them were great, some of them weren’t, we don’t have to worry about that now. It’s under the theory of let’s let the best tool do their job, in other words, we feel like we’ve found a great tool and everybody’s happy.

So next, is a quick snapshot of our architecture. This is our current architecture, so very quickly you can see HBR.org there and that site, the core of the site is an application, a Java-based application, Jvos specific application server, and it integrates below the line.

Those are deep integrations, those are behind the scenes. In our core integrations we have databases, e-commerce, search, user services and platform Web services that we share with other units in our business.

Then we have above our application server layers, advertising discussions and recommendations. Those are page-level integrations, some of them we serve, we make sure they have whatever information. They need to be relevant, but largely, it’s that one line of javascript on a page over here, way off on the left, is blogs at HBR.org currently on VIP.

We can do whatever we want next year if we want to change directions. WordPress is a fantastic tool for that.

The integration there is Javascript, so the users credentials representation gets passed back and forth, so as you’re navigating around, it’s a seamless experience.nIt’s in fact, completely different, but to the user it doesn’t matter. So that was a step towards making sure that even though there’s a blog post versus print – that the user doesn’t care, shouldn’t care.

The big change with the redesign is that it’s gonna move WordPress into our fold. What we’re going to do is because we have the entire archive posted on the WordPress instances. We’re going to integrate with it on the application level, rather than have WordPress serve up these pages.

So now within the same mix of the database is the search, the user services, all the other integration services that we use like e-commerce etc. The whole point is that the application is matching the content with the user, we’ve been able to chip away at this for years and now I feel like we’ve got it.

So WordPress is the content and all these other services are the user. Like what is the user doing? What is the user buying? What apps are they seeing? What can we do to better serve them?

And that’s the way we’re going, so that’s it in a nutshell, how’d I do? (You have 2 minutes left) I have two minutes left? I was suppose to be here with Matt Wagner, he’s sick.

He’s the one that really owns these two slides, so I probably didn’t do the amount of work justice, but it’s incredibly important, especially on the tech side.

We’ve been able accommodate the business with this kind of strategy over the last few years, making sure that we would serve the editorial side and serve the user side and so far so good. WordPress is a big part of that.

See the presentations from previous Big Media & Enterprise WordPress Meetups. For Big Media & Enterprise WordPress Meetup groups in other cities, see the full list on VIP Events and join your local group. 

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